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November 27 2019

sciencedomaininternational

Subclinical Mastitis Survey on Milk Composition in Dairy Sheep in Kurdistan Region of Iraq

Mastitis is an inflammatory condition of the mammary gland, characterized by the changes in the physical characteristics of the udder or milk. A cross sectional study was carried out in June, 2017 to December, 2018 to estimate the effect of subclinical mastitis (SCM) on milk composition in dairy sheeps in Kafri city of Kurdistan region of Iraq. Milk samples were gathered from residences of 295 sheeps with subclinical mastitis (California mastitis test (CMT) positive and somatic cell counts (SCC) >600,000 cells/ml in individual quarter foremilk), as well as from 50 healthy controls. Contrasted to the levels watched in milk from healthy quarters, milk from quarters with subclinical mastitis exhibited raised high chloride (>0.12 in contrast with <0.12 g/dl), pH (5.65 in comparison to 5.57), sodium (86.87 vs 47.81 mg/dl), albumin (4.52 in contrast with 1.75 g/dl), immunoglobulins (24.66% in comparison to 5.73%) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity (1344.14 vs 449.84 IU/L). In compare, reduced values were discovered for potassium (147.47 in comparison to 161.34 mg/dl), inorganic phosphorous (19.42 in comparison to 26.48 mg/dl), calcium (86.35 vs 121.12 mg/dl), β-lactoglobulin (30.22% in comparison to 52.18%) and α- lactalbumin (19.15% vs 24.52%). In this study, no changes were seen in blood serum LDH activity. Moreover, an increase in positive response to CMT was found to be accompanied by an almost proportionate increase in immunoglobulin values to 44.32% and reduce of α-lactalbumin levels in milk serum (p<0.01). These alterations in LDH activity, pH, mineral concentrations and protein fractions in milk of quarters display the presence of tissue injury provoked by SCM. Therefore, these parameters can be used in the diagnosis of mastitis. The current study revealed that changes of the foremilk chemical composition are connected to the subclinical mastitis; and that mastitis progression of quarters (CMT scores) influenced protein fractions in milk.

Please read full article : - www.journalajaar.com

October 10 2019

sciencedomaininternational

Phytochemical Screening, Elemental and Proximate Analysis of Maerua angolensis (Capparaceaea) Stem Bark

This work was designed to explore the phytochemicals, elemental and proximate analysis of Maerua angolensis Stem bark were determined using standard analytical methods. The phytochemical screening showed alkaloid (271.30 mg /100 g), tannins (340.25 mg /100 g), flavonoid (176.85 mg /100 g), reducing sugar (41.20 mg /100 g), glycosides (184.30 mg /100 g), steroids (112.30 mg /100 g), anthraquinones (167.85 mg /100 g) and saponin (225.61 mg /100 g). Also the elemental analysis carried out revealed that the concentration of Manganese (0.02 9 mg/kg), Copper (0.059 mg/kg), Calcium (0.070 mg/kg), Sodium (7.530 mg/kg), Zinc (0.028 mg/kg), Chromium (0.158 mg/kg), Lead (0.007 mg/kg), Iron (0.100 mg/kg) and Magnesium (0.020 mg/kg). The result of the proximate composition showed  that the moisture, fat, crude protein, crude fibre, ash, carbohydrate and energy value content of the samples were 3.58±0.04%, 6.25±0.09%, 21.79±0.26%, 48.51±2.31%, 13.28±1.86%, 6.60±1.79% and 169.81±8.49  kcal/100 g respectively. The pH value obtained was 5.65±0.09. These indicate that the plant can be effective source for drugs. The elemental and proximate analysis shows that it contained appreciable amount of nutrients which could be included in diets to supplement human daily nutrient needs and animal.

Please read full article : - www.journalijbcrr.com
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