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February 06 2020

sciencedomaininternational

Physical Activity and Adolescent Health: What Should We Know?

Adolescence is characterized by a period of physical, emotional, social and cultural transformations, significant increase in size and changes in physical appearance. At this stage of life the individual is very susceptible to influences of the environment, nutrition, climate, interpersonal relationships and physical activity, among others. This article presents some of the main physical and emotional characteristics of adolescence and the importance of physical activity, highlighting the benefits for physical and mental health, and proposing actions to increase this practice among adolescents.

Please read full article : - www.journalacri.com

February 05 2020

sciencedomaininternational

Climate Change and Migration: Adapting to Crisis

The present study is attempted to identify the determinants of migration in India. The National Sample Survey data of 64th round (July 2007-June 2008) was used and decoded to elicit household-level information. A multi-criteria approach was adapted to the analysis of the data. The study’s findings revealed that about 70% of migrated people are illiterate, while 57% of migrated people were agricultural laborers. The multi-criteria analysis results for permanent migration revealed that farmers belong to the rural area, having a land size less than two hectares, belonging to the Hindu religion, are likely to migrate permanently. Also, illiteracy, marital status, low consumption expenditure in rural areas, rainfall, and minimum temperature motivate farmer’s decision to adopt migration as an ultimate coping strategy against climate change. As far as grass-root policy interventions are concern, it is suggested that in rural areas, where unemployment has the main driver for migration, a proactive social protection programme, i.e., MGNREGA can be part of a proactive approach to managing climate-induced migration. Climate change as a cause of migration is uncertain and contextual. This necessitates the inclusivity of local populations in decision-making wherein their perceptions and responses are democratically represented and not merely channeled into participatory processes.

Please read full article : - www.journalajee.com
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Evaluation of Some Heavy Metals in Soils around Major Parks in Gombe Town, Nigeria

The levels of heavy metals (Mn, Ni, Pb, Cr, Zn and Fe in mg/kg) in roadside soils from two main motor parks (Gombe Terminus and Tashan Dukku) in Gombe, Nigeria were assessed with respect to distance from the motor parks. The metals concentrations were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry.  The results show that iron had the highest concentration in all the soils and can be represented in the following order: Fe > Zn > Pb > Ni > Mn > Cr. The heavy metals concentrations were found to be higher in the roadside soils as compared with the control samples. Thus, the metals concentrations decrease with increase in distance away from the parks.

Please read full article : - www.journalajacr.com
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Urinary Tract Infection among Pregnant Women Attending Antenatal Care Service Visit on Selected Hospital of Kathmandu, Nepal

Background: Urinary Tract Infection during pregnancy may cause serious complications including pyelonephritis and delivery of premature or low-birth-weight infants.

Aim: The main objective of the study was to identify the Urinary tract infection among pregnant women attending the antenatal care service visit in a selected hospital in Kathmandu, Nepal.

Study Design: Cross-sectional descriptive study.

Place and Time of Study: The study was carried out under the supervision of University and field study was carried out in Kathmandu, Nepal from March 2019 to October 2019.

Methods: The cross-sectional study was performed at the Norvic Hospital and Baidya and Banskota hospital from March 2019 to October 2019. The most frequent isolates were determined in 510 first urine samples from clinically suspected pregnant women by urine dipstick analysis, microscopic and by culture method. The identification of isolates was performed by the standard microbiological testing and the standard methods of descriptive statistics as well.

Results: Out of 510 clinically suspected urinary tract infection cases, 320 (62.6%) were culture negative. According to the microscopic examination of urine samples among gram-negative pathogens, the majority 177 (35%) Escherichia coli was the most common pathogens followed by Enterobacter cloacae 114 (22.4%) whereas among gram-positive pathogens; majority 93 (18 Staphylococcus negative coagulase was the most common pathogens.

Conclusions: The high prevalence of urinary tract infection in pregnant women warrant the need to screen all pregnant women and treat those infected with appropriate antimicrobial regimens to reduce its complications. Urinary Tract Infection screening is essential in pregnant women.

Please read full article : - www.journalajrru.com

sciencedomaininternational

Modified Sidewall Design of QFN Package

The paper offers an improvement for leadframe devices to mitigate the occurrence of package chipping rejection during package mechanical singulation. The discussion provides a specialized design of mold chase for mold encapsulation process, and an augmented mechanical cutting technique of package singulation. Furthermore, insights are shared to apprehend the manufacturability of the improved design and process during assembly manufacturing specifically on the critical process steps of mold encapsulation and package singulation.

Please read full article : - www.journaljerr.com

sciencedomaininternational

A Comparative Study on the Developmental Trends in the Contemporary Iranian Architecture; Case Study-Khosrawi Leather Factory of Tabriz

Architecture and urbanization are representatives of our architectural and cultural histories. Many of the lost historical characteristics can come out of the back door citing such representatives. Reconstruction and restoration are a set of activities that deal with the body and spirit of a subject. The subject can be a city, a natural environment or an architectural structure. There are different approaches to reconstruction and restoration, which differ significantly in terms of the level of intervention in a historical subject. This is a technique that our archaeologists are not sufficiently familiar with. From an archaeological point of view on the historical subjects, any document could not be as consistent as the architectural works with the circumstances of the community. The nature of the art of modern history is to see which cases have not been addressed in historical documents. As the historical subjects’ evidence, we were not so diligent in the preservation of such subjects as a documentary. The aim of this study is to investigate the heritage of contemporary architecture and to determine how to preserve such works, as well as to review the Khosrawi leather factory in Tabriz, which has now maintained its role as the Islamic Art University. The results of this research, which are obtained through a descriptive-analytical method, show that we can preserve the architectural structures by changing the application of traditional structures to the cultural or social ones.

Please read full article : - www.journaljerr.com

February 04 2020

sciencedomaininternational

Enhanced Welfare through Market Integration: A Study of Growth, Variation and Price Integration of Chickpea

Chickpea is the most important pulse in India. The present study is based on secondary data, worked out trends in production, seasonal variation and integration among major markets of India. Advance Econometrics analysis like Granger Causality test, Johansen Co-integration test and Vector Error Correction model were employed to examine the integration of markets. The trend in area and production shows fluctuations in major producing states except in Uttar Pradesh. In all the major producing states of chickpea, contribution of area was higher in production. The production trend improves in case of Madhya Pradesh whereas decreased in Rajasthan and Uttar Pradesh. Seasonality in arrivals has impacted the monthly retail price in all the selected markets. Out of six selected markets, five markets were having a long run price relationship. However, market integration has not yet reached an optimal level because all markets were not spatially integrated with one another in all the cases. The short run results indicated that chickpea’s markets were not well integrated. This could be due to poor market intelligence and unfavorable location of the markets. The policy intervention calls for strengthening market intelligent wing in all markets along with the establishing of online marketing system through computerization and networking. Strengthening of market infrastructure including transportation and communication facilities are the need of time in order to fully integrate the market prices. Concentration of marketing during the lean seasons helps reducing the impact of seasonality.

Please read full article : - www.journalcjast.com
sciencedomaininternational

Microbiological and Probiotic Assessment of Yeast Isolated from Wholegrain Millet Sourdoughs

Background: The term probiotics have been described as live microorganisms associated with fermented foods that confer health benefit to the host. For a long time, researches into the world of probiotics have extensively and predominantly centred upon species of lactic acid bacteria and until recently Saccharomyces cerevisiae, as the only well-defined and proven probiotic yeast strain. The purpose of this study was to isolate and characterise the yeast species associated with the fermentation of wholegrain millet sourdoughs and investigate in vitro the possible probiotic potential of the isolates.

Methodology: Wholegrain millet sourdoughs were prepared by spontaneous fermentation of the flours with tap water in the ratio 1:1 (w/v) for 48 h at 28 ± 2ºC through backslopping. A total of twenty five yeasts were identified based on their cultural, morphological and biochemical characteristics. The selected isolates were characterized to species level using API 20 C AUX test identification kit. Probiotic properties examined included bile salt and acid tolerance under conditions simulating the human gastrointestinal tract (GIT) and positive antagonistic activity against selected pathogens following well established procedures.

Results: The selected isolates investigated were characterized to belong to species of Saccharomyces and Kluveromyces. All of the isolates were discovered to exhibit sufficient survival under acidic pH of 2.0 with values ranging from 1.0log cfu ml-1 to 7.8log cfu ml-1 and showed high resistance to bile salt with values ranging from 63-99%. They also exhibited good antimicrobial activity against enteric pathogens of E. coli, Salmonella typhimurium, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumonia, Streptococcus pyogenes, Proteus vulgaris and Pseudomonas sp.

Conclusion: Millet sourdoughs can serve as an affordable nutritionally healthy substrate for delivery of probiotics to the gastro-intestinal tract, thereby proffering basic health functionality. This study allowed to isolate and to identify yeast species present in millet sourdoughs with technological potential for sourdough applications.

Please read full article : - www.journaljamb.com
sciencedomaininternational

Effect of Nitrogen Fertilizer and Inter Row Spacing on Leave Length and Width of Rhodes Grass (Chloris gayana) Tan in the Dry Sub Humid Zone of Sokoto Nigeria

A field experiment was conducted during the 2016 and 2017 rainy seasons at Centre for Agriculture and Pastoral Research (CAPAR) of the Usmanu Danfodiyo University Sokoto, Nigeria to study the effect of nitrogen fertilizer and inter-row spacing on Leave length and Leave width of Rhodes grass as indices of growth. A factorial combination of five fertilizer levels (0, 100, 120, 140 and 160 kgNha-1) and three inter row spacing (30, 50 and 70 cm) were used, making fifteen treatments combinations, which were laid out in a RCBD replicated four times. Determination of leave length and leave width was done at 3, 6, 9 and 12WAS using a meter rule. The data obtained were statistically analyzed by using analysis of variance (ANOVA), using the GenStat 64-bit Release 17.1 (software) to elucidate the valid information from the data. The result revealed that, application of 160 KgNha-1 generally produced plants with longer and broader (P<0.05) leaves compared to the rest of the treatments, however there was generally significant (P>0.05) effect of inter row spacing in both 2016, 2017 and the years combined, inter-row spacing of 70 cm showed superiority amongst the treatments in the leaves length and leave width parameters investigated as compared to 50 and 30 cm spacings.

Please read full article : - www.journalajarr.com
sciencedomaininternational

Effect of Infant and Young Child Feeding Practices on the Nutritional Status of Children 0-24 Months of Age in Port Harcourt, Nigeria

Background: Childhood under-nutrition is prevalent in many developing countries including Nigeria, and is an underlying cause for more than half of all childhood deaths. Based on the recent Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey (NDHS), the prevalence of under-nutrition between 2008 and 2013 has risen, despite an increase in exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) rate over the same period.

This study was carried out to assess the effect of infant and young child feeding practices on , nutritional status of children  0 – 24 months in Port Harcourt, Nigeria.

Subjects and Methods:   Data were collected between November and December 2016 from 307 mother-child (aged 0 – 24 months) pairs attending six health centres in Port Harcourt using a pretested self-administered questionnaire. Data collected included maternal and child socio-demographics, mother’s infant feeding practices, 24-hour dietary recall and anthropometric measurements. Data were analysed using SPSS version 20.0.

Results: The mean age of the children was 5.6±6.1 months, 207 (67.4%) were under 6 months of age and 100 (32.6%) between the ages of 6 to 24 months. Three hundred and three (98.7%) children were breastfed. The rate of exclusive breastfeeding was 51.7% among the children aged 0 – 5.9 months. The mean age at which breastfeeding was stopped was 9.3±5.5 months. The average age at which complementary foods were started was 4.4±1.8 months. All the children on complementary feeding met the minimum feeding frequency, but only 43 (33.6%) met the minimum dietary diversity of 4 or more food groups. Overall, 111 (36.2%) children were fed according to WHO recommendation. 10.1% of the children were overweight/obese, 5.5% were wasted, 6.2% were underweight and 8.8% were stunted. Lack of EBF was positively associated with stunting (p = 0.024).

Conclusion: Infant and Young Child Feeding practices among mothers in Port Harcourt fall short of the WHO recommendations, resulting in various types of malnutrition among the children. Therefore, more emphasis should be laid on growth monitoring and promotion services and age-specific nutritional counseling to parents and care-givers.

Please read full article : - www.journalajmah.com

sciencedomaininternational

Maternal Knowledge on Routine Childhood Immunization: A Community Based Cross-sectional Study in Rural Area of Mon State, Myanmar

Aims: To determine the knowledge on routine childhood immunization and the factors associated with it among mothers in rural area of Mon State, Myanmar during 2017.

Study Design: A community based cross-sectional study.

Place and Duration of Study: Rural area of Mon State, Myanmar, between June and August 2017.

Methodology: We included 302 mothers who had 18 to 23 months old children using multistage random sampling. Face-to-face interview was applied in data collection. Chi-square test and multivariate logistic regression analysis were utilized in data analysis.

Results: More than three fourths of mothers (76.2%) had good knowledge level on routine childhood immunization. There was a significant association between maternal knowledge and immunization status of their children (p<0.001). Logistic regression showed that the husband’s occupation was significantly associated with maternal knowledge (p=0.02).

Conclusion: Majority of mothers have good knowledge on routine childhood immunization. However, health education campaign should be intensified to improve their knowledge level, especially among mothers whose husbands are blue-collar workers.

Please read full article : - www.journalajrid.com
sciencedomaininternational

Optimization of the Performance of Hybrid Solar Biomass Dryer for Drying Maize Using ANSYS Workbench

In this paper ANSYS workbench was used to optimize the performance of hybrid solar biomass dryer for drying shelled maize in order to find the optimal operating input variables when the air temperature within the drying chamber set within the permissible range at reasonably high flow velocity. Hybrid Solar dryer with biomass as a source of fuel for auxiliary heating during absence or low solar insolation is a feasible option for small scale maize farmers [1]. At times high temperatures are induced in this dryer which may result in grain fissures and breakage during milling, thus reducing the grain quality. Optimization results indicate that in order to keep the air temperature within drying chamber to permissible range [2], the air velocity at collector inlet and biomass heat exchanger outlet should be improved to 3 m/s and 2.8 m/s respectively while the capacity of the biomass heat exchanger should also be enhanced to provide hot air at 85°C. It be concluded from the study that HSBD is suitable for drying maize as well as other agricultural products since continuous interrupted drying can be achieved. The capability of the dryer to maintain uniform temperature and air flow within the drying chamber enable high quality dried products within a short duration.

Please read full article : - www.journaljenrr.com
sciencedomaininternational

Consumption of Coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) Water Improved Fertility Parameters in Male Wistar Rats

Background: The need for fertility stimulation in men and women cannot be overemphasized especially when a marriage is childless in some communities in Nigeria. While chemical methods for fertility stimulation may have some side effects and are not readily available, remedy from natural sources can be used.

Aim: This present study is aimed to evaluate the effect of coconut water on fertility in male Wistar rats.

Materials and Methods: Coconuts of about 8 months old were harvested from Apata area of Ibadan in Oyo State, Nigeria. The coconuts were dehusked, broken carefully and the liquid endosperm was collected and preserved in the refrigerator. Thirty male Wistar rats weighing between 180 and 200 g were used for the experiment. They were acclimatized for 7 days during which they were fed ad libitum with standard feed and drinking water. They were randomly divided into 6 groups of 5 rats each. Animals in groups A, B and C were administered normal saline for 10, 20 and 30 days respectively via oral route. Those in groups D, E and F were similarly treated (for 10, 20 and 30 days respectively via oral route) but with 3 mL of undiluted coconut water. At the end of treatment, the animals were sacrificed by the cervical dislocation. The internal organs were exposed. Testes and cauda epididymis were removed and kept in sterilized watched glass. Male fertility parameters were determined using standard methods.

Results: Coconut water caused increased sperm count and sperm motility while mortality and abnormality of spermatozoa decreased significantly after 10, 20 and 30 days of treatment respectively. However, coconut water had no significant difference on seminal pH at P<0.05.

Conclusion: The results of this present study showed that coconut water increased fertility in male Wistar rats. Men with fertility challenges are encouraged to consume coconut water as often as possible.

Please read full article : - www.journalajpcb.com
sciencedomaininternational

Impact of Exercise on Some Haematological and Cellular Immune Markers in Male Athletes

Due to conflicting reports on the impact of exercise on haematological and immunological indices, this study investigated the effects of exercise on some haematological and cellular immune markers in male athletes. Blood samples were collected from 86 apparently healthy male athletes before and after exercise training using standardized methods. Similarly, blood samples were obtained from 100 male non-athletes and served as control. Blood samples collected from athletes and non-athletes were subjected to experimental evaluation of some haematological and cellular immune biomarkers using standard techniques. Results showed that, with the exception of neutrophils that significantly increased after exercise in athletes, lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils and clusters of differentiation counts significantly (p<0.05) decreased in athletes after exercise. Also, with the exception of platelets, other haematological parameters assayed in this study significantly (p<0.05) decreased in athletes after exercise. However, there was no significant change in these parameters between athletes at rest and non-athletes. This study concludes that heavy training could lead to an open window of immunodepression leading to susceptibility to infection in athletes and non-athletes alike.

Please read full article : - www.journalaji.com

sciencedomaininternational

Stillbirths in Primary Level Hospitals in Sunyani, Ghana: A Retrospective Data Analysis

Aims: To determine prevalence and factors influencing stillbirth among deliveries.

Study Design: A facility-based cross-sectional analytical study.

Place and Duration of Study: Sunyani Municipal and Seventh Day Adventist (SDA) Hospitals in Bono Region, Ghana from January, 2014 and December, 2015. 

Methodology: Two thousand and twelve deliveries were analyzed. Outcome variable was stillbirth, explanatory variables were the sociodemographic, obstetric and clinical characteristics. Logistic regression (bivariate and multivariate) analysis reporting odds ratio at 95% confidence interval were calculated to identify factors associated with stillbirth.

Results Stillbirth rate was 15/1000 births. Mean age of mothers was 28.2 ±5.9 years and majority (75.1%) were aged 20-34 years. Prevalence of stillbirth was higher among women with no formal education (2.1%). Odds of stillbirth decreased with additional antenatal care (ANC) visits; 2-3times ANC visits (AOR=0.16, 95% CI:0.06 - 0.48), ANC 4+ times (AOR=0.017, 95% CI: 0.006 - 0.052). Women who received 3+ doses of intermittent prophylactic treatment (IPT) for malaria had 68% reduction in odds of stillbirth compared with those who had one (AOR=0.32, 95% CI: 0.009-0.103). Women with haemoglobin greater than 11.0 g/dl were more than 70% less likely of stillbirth outcome (AOR = 0.29, 95% CI: 0.11-0.73).

Conclusion: High number of ANC visits, optimal maternal haemoglobin (>11.0 g/dl) and 3+ IPT are associated with lower risk of stillbirth among deliveries.  Premium should be placed on quality of ANC to suit the specific needs of pregnant women whiles encouraging more visits.

Please read full article : - www.journalajpcb.com
sciencedomaininternational

Die Attach Assembly Process Tool Advancement

Die attach film (DAF) voids detection is one of the challenges during the introduction of non-conductive adhesives for integrated circuit products affecting production control robustness and detection. In this paper, a specialized tool capable to distinguish and quantify the amount of DAF voids is presented wherein the implementation of semi-auto grid lines generates more precise measurement and correct defect call-out. The tool is proposed as an alternative option for x-ray inspection that is found to be incapable in proper detection and accurate measurement of gaps and un-occupied area within the adhesive thickness that produces over estimation of production rejects.

Please read full article : - www.journaljerr.com
sciencedomaininternational

Reservoir Flow Unit Analysis of Akos Field in Niger Delta

In this study, the flow units of reservoirs of Akos field have been computed with the Stratigraphic Modified Lorenz plot. Cumulative flow capacity and cumulative storage capacity were used for constructing the Stratigraphic Modified Lorenz Plot (SMLP). The flow capacity and storage capacity are functions of calculated permeability and porosity values considering their sampling depth. The porosity and permeability were obtained from composite well logs of eight oil wells in the study area. Two reservoirs A and B were delineated from the well logs. The stratigraphic Modified Lorenz Plots (SMLP) revealed a total of one hundred and twelve (112) Flow units (FU) in the two observed reservoirs A and B. Reservoir A has a total of 53 FU (25 speed zones, 18 baffle zones and 10 barrier zones) and reservoir B has a total of 59 FU (29 speed zones, 16 baffle zones and 14 barrier zones) which cut across all the wells. The flow units in both reservoirs fall within the speed zones, baffles and barrier unit categories. The speed zone units with equal flow and storage capacities are the dominant flow units in both reservoirs. This is an indication that the sediments have good reservoir qualities. The baffle zones have more storage capacity than the speed zones. The barrier zones within the reservoirs are acting as a seal to the flow of fluid.

Please read full article : - www.journaljerr.com

February 03 2020

sciencedomaininternational

Nutritional Attributes of Baked Products from Composite Flour of Wheat and Pigeon Pea

The goal of this study was to develop bread and biscuit from mixture of wheat and pigeon pea flours and examine the nutritional quality of the two products. The composite flour blend was formulated using wheat and pigeon pea flours in ratio 90:10, 80:20 and 70:30 (wheat: pigeon pea). The samples produced were designated as PWB1, PWB2 and PWB3 for bread while for biscuit the designations were PWb1, PWb2 and PWb3 respectively. For the control samples 100% of wheat flour was used and the samples were designated as PWB0 for bread and PWb0 for biscuit. Samples were analyzed for proximate, minerals and vitamins content using standard analytical procedures of AOAC. Mean data were compared using ANOVA at P< 0.05. The Crude protein (CP), Fat and Ash content of PWB0 (%) were; 10.19, 2.26 and 1.91, respectively. PWBI, PWB2 and PWB3 ranged from 11.69-14.21 CP, 2.82-3.69 fat and 2.09-2.62 ash. PWb1, PWb2 and PWb3 ranged from 14.40-16.19 CP, 8.02-8.15 fat and 1.53-2.01 ash. The proximate composition of bread and biscuit made from composite flour improved significantly at 70:30 formulation (P=.05) compare to the control. The calcium, potassium and zinc content of PWB0 (mg/100 g) were; 54.95, 261.70 and 0.30 respectively. PWBI, PWB2 and PWB3 ranged from 75.50-116.30, 276.05-351.40 and 0.37-0.43. PWb0, PWb1, PWb2 and PWb3 also followed similar trend. Similarly, there was significant increase in β-carotene, thiamine, and riboflavin as the levels of pigeon pea flour increased. Addition of pigeon pea flour to wheat flour clearly enhanced the nutritional composition of the two products except for the reduction in iron and iodine content.

Please read full article : - www.journalcjast.com
sciencedomaininternational

The Social Self of Child Refugee through Cinema: A Sociological – Educational Approach

This paper is concerned with contemporary cinema films about refugees in an attempt to highlight their social self through redefined identities. The refugee issue is a crucial one to the global community. Political structures are tested by population mobility, while the democratic system is also challenged. The interpretation of discourse determinant to refugee social self is supported through studying cinema films. Focus is placed on screenplay, image and expression of feelings by the actors.

Five films portraying child refugees’ life trajectories are utilized to highlight the reconstruction of their social selves, while struggling for survival and violently being introduced to early adulthood. Cultural issues are correlated with social meanings and interpretative discourse patterns based on the way they are illustrated in the films. The film itself becomes discourse expressing the reality through correlating meanings constructed within the social, political and cultural setting. The unfolding of films, as interpretative patterns, includes knowledge that is the meanings of everyday life conducive to shaping emotions, attitudes and behaviours. The combination between the film narrative and social web forms the basis on which the political discourse pattern is approached, while the meaning emanates from the co-articulated domineering and conflicting discourses.

Following the massive population transfer to Europe, due to wars, domestic conflicts, political reversals and climate change, this time period forms the breeding ground to study refugee-related film theoretical discourse. This analysis will contribute to self-reflection through studying the hidden aspects of refugee life. Everyday refugee-related political discourses highlight the effects on the economic system and political structures, while the dimension of the citizen – refugee is concealed. Thus, the refugee, as individual and social subject, is invisible, excluded and marginalized. Films on refugees are conducive to increasing the different ways of viewing their lives in modern societies. At the same time, the education system is challenged to integrate child refugees through meaningful educational practices.

Please read full article : - www.journalajess.com

sciencedomaininternational

Why did Medical Graduates Appreciate Mentored Student Project? Perspectives of Two Theories

Background: Medical doctors have to develop in professionalism in addition to become competent in clinical skills. Therefore, educators in Melaka Manipal Medical College have inculcated personal and professional development (PPD) projects into medical curriculums. The projects were in the form of Role Plays/Narratives/Creative writing and Mentored Student Project (MSP). Short terms outcomes of the projects were evaluated, and the research disclosed the positive effect of all PPDs on medical students. However, the long-term effect was yet to be evaluated. The findings of the previous study have not explained why those PPD projects are successful. While twenty fresh medical graduates were asked to reflect on one best learning experience as a qualitative evaluation of the programme, students’ appreciation of MSP disclosed. This study aimed to explore the students’ reflection to identify the reasons for their appreciation of MSP and the long-term effect of it.

Study Design: Qualitative research.

Methodology: Three reflective writings by fresh graduates were analyzed using the interpretive phenomenological analysis (IPA) approach. Students expressed their conscious perceptions about MSP in the form of words in their reflections. The researcher carefully read the reflections and interpret the words and phrases to catch the students’ perception of MSP.

Results: The qualitative analysis revealed the reasons for participating in MSP and their appreciation about MSP. The main reason for students’ participation in MSP was to fulfill the requirement of the medical programme although one student mentioned that she was interested in MSP due to the nature of MSP. Four themes were formulated as reasons for their appreciation of MSP: (1) having an opportunity to choose their research topic, (2) the presence of a mentor to guide each student group, (3) opportunity for the poster presentation on results of MSP and (4) satisfaction with the overall outcome of the MSP.

Conclusion: This study highlights the long-term impacts of MSP on students which matched with the expected learning outcomes set by Ministry of Education Malaysia. The analysis disclosed not only the outcome but also the process of MSP contribute for its success.

Please read full article : - www.journalajess.com
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