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October 10 2019


Effect of Public Spending on Economic Growth in Kenya

This study aimed at examining the relationship between public spending and economic growth and how the composition of government expenditure affects economic growth in Kenya using time series data from 1980 to 2014. To achieve the objectives, modified Granger causality and Autoregressive Distributed Lag model (ARDL) were used. The results revealed both short term and long term causality from economic growth to government expenditure but only short run causality from government expenditure to economic growth. Based on the economic classification, the long run ARDL regression results showed development expenditure promotes economic growth while government purchases have no significant effect on GDP. Other control variables such as inflation and unemployment had negative effect on economic growth. In terms of functional classification, the regression results showed that expenditure on education and infrastructure are important drivers of economic growth. The positive effect of health expenditure was not significant.  Further, the regression results indicated that domestic savings and trade openness had significant positive effect on economic growth. Based on the empirical findings this study therefore recommends resources to be directed towards financing public infrastructure investment to improve economic performance. The study also recommends increasing resource allocation in the education sector to improve efficiency and support skills and human capital development that are important in promoting economic growth through increases in labor productivity. The study also recommends policymakers to enhance domestic resource mobilization and pursue favorable trade policies aimed at fostering robust economic growth.

Please read full article : - www.journaljemt.com

Plasmid Profile Analysis of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Isolated from Wound Infections in a General Hospital in Southern Nigeria

Background/Purpose: Open wound infection is a serious problem especially with extended-spectrum beta lactamase (ESBL) producing Gram negative bacteria such as P. aeruginosa. The purpose of this research was to identify open wound infections due to Pseudomonas aeruginosa and also determine their plasmid profile.

Methods:  A total of 50 Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates were obtained from clinical wound swabs in a secondary health care facility. Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates were identified using Microbact 24E system kit. Pseudomonas aeruginosa were isolated and subjected to antibiotic susceptibility testing by disc diffusion method. ESBL production was detected using Double Disk Synergy Test (DDST) and CHROMagar ESBL (France). Six different antibiotic discs were used to determine the susceptibility pattern of the isolates. Plasmids were extracted using ZR plasmid Miniprep classic extraction Kit. Electrophoresis of the DNA was carried out on 0.8% w/v agarose gel.

Results: The prevalence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa was 63%. The antibiotic resistance pattern showed that Pseudomonas aeruginosa was highly resistant against cefotaxime (90%), ofloxacin (80%), ceftazidime (55%), azetronam (60%), imipenem (25%), amoxicillin clavulanic acid (35%) and amikacin (30%). Plasmid profile was carried out on 20 selected multidrug resistant isolates; those resistant to three or more classes of antibiotics. Plasmid content of the isolates were found to be 90%. All isolates that had plasmid were resistant to cefotaxim, ceftazidime, azetronam, ofloxacin and amikacin.

Conclusion: Antibiotic resistance by P. aeruginosa is increasingly high in wound infections and appears to be linked to the presence of plasmid and ESBL enzymes.

Please read full article : - www.journaljamb.com


Me, Myself and Us? The Relationship between Ethnic Identity and Hope, Resilience and Family Relationships among Different Ethnic Groups

For ethnic minority populations, ethnic identity is associated with an increase in psychological well-being while also being recognized as a protective factor against discrimination and family distress. The aim of this study is to determine the association between ethnic identity and resilience, hope, social connectedness, experiences of discrimination and family relations in a diverse group of ethnicities. This study is correlational in nature and took place at Mount Royal University, located in Calgary, Alberta, Canada, between January and April 2019. We included 326 introductory psychology students ranging in age from 17 to 48 with participants identifying as White, Asian, South Asian, Mixed, Black, Latino, First Nations, Metis, Inuit, and Middle Eastern. Participants were asked to complete six questionnaires measuring ethnic identity, resilience, hope, social connectedness, experiences of discrimination and family relations. Results revealed a significant relationship between ethnic identity and hope (r = .14, p = .01). Additionally, family relationships were a significant moderator of the relationship between ethnic identity and resilience (F(1, 322) = 4.98, p < .05). Finally, White participants had a significantly weaker ethnic identity when compared to the Asian, South Asian and Black participants (Welch’s F(7,41) = 9.39, p = .001,η 2= .22). Ethnic identity is associated with higher levels of hope, while strong family relationships moderate the relationship between ethnic identity and resilience. Furthermore, individuals who identify as White have a weaker ethnic identity compared to individuals who identify as Asian, South Asian and Black. More research is required to understand ethnic identity in the White population to help bring awareness to the power and privilege associated with Whiteness and to find ways in which this awareness can help reduce systemic racism and discrimination.

Please read full article : - www.journaljesbs.com

Assessment of Probiotic in Aquaculture: Functional Changes and Impact on Fish Gut

One of the most studied or researched sector is probiotics. The probiotic sector has generated hundreds of publications, products and also created awareness of public health benefits. Probiotics means “live microorganisms (usually bacteria) that are similar to beneficial microorganisms found in the human gut that are taken as dietary supplements or found in foods.” Such work will include, competitive exclusion, generating inhibitory components, a striving for the same nutrients and interference with quorum sensing mechanism and improved immunity. Probiotic one of the most reliable approach to combat fish disease for sustainable aquaculture. This microbial intervention approach can boost fish yield by improving feed utilization, nevertheless provide protection from pathogens by different modes of action. The use probiotic containing food has the beneficial properties has been known for centuries in human health however research in probiotics for aquaculture was a journey from last two decades. Here we are discussing the role of probiotics in aquatic animal and aquaculture environment, particularly focusing on their functional changes such as growth promoter, biocontrol and bioremediation agents, interrupt the action of pathogens by producing inhibitory substances. Finally gut morphology of rohu, Labeo ruhita were compared between probiotic and basal diet fed fishes.

Please read full article : - www.journalmrji.com

Validation of Efficiency Method for Heavy Metals Determination in Kola Nuts (Cola nitida Schott & Endl.) from Côte d’Ivoire

Aims: The current study targets the achievement of a reliable process for the determination of heavy metal contents in kola nuts, namely cadmium, mercury, and lead, for better appreciation of the risks incurred from the consumption of such food products.

Study Design: kola nuts collected from different stakeholders (planters, collectors, stores and centers) were analyzed after the validation of the proposed analytical method.

Place and Duration of Study: Central Laboratory for Food Hygiene and Agro-Industry, LANADA in Abidjan, Côte d’Ivoire, running 2018.

Methodology: Two references were used for the validation of the analytical method, namely the French standard NF V 03-110 and the European directive 2001/22/EC. The assays were achieved with an flame Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS). The heavy metal contents of some samples collected from different sampling place were then determined

Results: From the data, a significant regression chart was recorded for the heavy metals detection graphs, with significant correlation coefficients (R²˃ 0.99). The linearity domain was validated between 0.5 μg/L and 1.5 μg/L for cadmium, 15 μg/L and 45 μg/L for lead and from 10 μg/L to 100 μg/L for mercury. In addition, the LOD were 0.03 μg/L, 1.85 μg/L and 2.92 μg/L, while the LOQ were 0.07 μg/L, 6.52 μg/L and 3.32 μg/L for cadmium, lead and mercury, respectively. The relative standard deviations of the repeatability and reproducibility assays are below 4%, whereas standard additions of heavy metals are fully recovered, with percentages close to 100%. Contents of cadmium, lead and mercury in kola nuts are respectively valued at 22.97±9.01 μg/kg, 1065.57±613.76 μg/kg and 33.88±31.58 μg/kg from the farmers and 24.99±7.79 μg/kg, 296.51±98.18 μg/kg and 39.74±34.66 μg/kg from the storage centres.

Conclusion: This analytical method could help in ensuring effective sanitary control at different critical points of kola nut distribution channel for promoting a good management of the toxicity concerns in such products.

Please read full article
: - www.journalajarr.com

HPLC Evaluation of Phenolic Compounds in Physalis angulata Linn. and Physalis micrantha Linn. (Solanaceae)

Physalis angulata Linn. and Physalis micrantha Linn. (Solanaceae) used for different medicinal purposes in Nigeria and other parts of the world were subjected to high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis to determine their phytochemical profiles. Forty five (45) alkaloids, 36 flavonoids, 18 glycosides and 44 phenolic acids were observed in the plants. P. angulata had the highest concentrations of flavonoids, phenolic acids and alkaloids while P. micarantha had the highest concentration of glycosides. The presence and concentration of these chemicals in these studied species confirm their medicinal and ethno-botanical uses and make them potential sources of raw materials for the pharmaceutical industries.

Please read full article : - www.journalejmp.com

Effect of Different Mutagens on Some Mineral, Phytochemical and Proximate Composition of Two Red Pepper Varieties

Aim: This research was designed to evaluate the effects of different levels of three mutagens on two pepper varieties with a vision of choosing mutants with high values in biochemical contents that may possibly be valuable in breeding improved varieties of the plant.

Methods: Seeds of pepper were exposed to varying doses of gamma rays 60Co (50, 100, 150, and 200Gy), X-ray doses (40, 60, 80, and 100KV) and sodium azide (0.01, 0.02, 0.03 and 0.04%). The treated seeds and the controls were grown in the Botanic Garden of the University of Nigeria, Nsukka using a Completely Randomized Design.

Results: The result showed that vitamin C and β-carotene ranged from 5.89 – 26.88 and 2.62 – 11.35 mg/100 g, Fe and Ca (14.70 and 13.78 mg/100 g) were highest in Shombo at 100Gy. Values ranging from 0.36-2.00 and 3.96 – 18.82 mg/100 g were recorded for flavonoid and alkaloid content across all treatment combinations. The result also revealed that at 100Kv and 150Gy, ash content increased in both varieties. The highest protein concentration of 9.57% was recorded at 100Kv of X-ray in Shombo and 6.96% at 150Gy of gamma irradiation in Tatase variety. Principal component analysis explained extracted five principal axis which accounted for the variability of 72.54%.

Conclusion: This study reveals that biochemical content in pepper could be improved with exposure to mutagens especially gamma irradiation.

Please read full article : - www.journalarrb.com

Biochemical Changes in the Malnourished Rats Serum and Liver Exposed to Dietary Monosodium Glutamate

Monosodium glutamate (MSG) is a flavor enhancer. Its toxicity in a malnourished state appears not to have been fully investigated. This study was carried out to determine the effects of MSG on malnourished rats. Rats were randomly assigned into four groups of five rats/group. Group 1 rats were fed with malnourished feed; Group 2 rats received malnourished feed with dosed 1.6 mg/g MSG per body weight; Group 3 rats were fed with normal feed and dosed 1.6 mg/g MSG per body weight and Group 4 rats served as the control group (normal healthy rats) and were fed with normal feed for 28 days. After 28 days, the rats were sacrificed with the liver harvested and blood samples collected. Results from the study showed that malnourished rats had significantly lower levels of oxidative stress biomarkers including, anti-oxidants compared with the control. The levels of malondialldehyde concentration and xanthine oxidase activity were high in malnourished fed rats. Aspartate aminotransferase and alanine transaminase levels of malnourished and normal rats administered MSG were significantly low compared to the normal healthy suggesting that labialization occurs in liver leading to leakage of these enzymes from the liver to the serum. Malnourished rats showed significant decrease in body weight losing 48 grams after 28 days compared to malnourished and normal rats fed with MSG which recorded significant increase in body weight after 28 days adding 26 g and 42 g respectively.

Please read full article : - www.journalejnfs.com

The Management and Treatment of Skin Cancer – Are We Doing it Right?

Objective: This study aims to identify whether the University Hospital of Lewisham is managing patients according to the published guidelines and to create local guidelines for the identification and management of squamous cell carcinomas.

Design: This was a retrospective cross-sectional standards audit of patients diagnosed with squamous cell carcinoma at the University Hospital of Lewisham. A total of twenty patients were chosen at random for this study (out of a total of 79) by the specialist registrar dermatologist using a random number generator. Patients were divided into low-risk, high-risk and not recorded risks of squamous cell carcinoma. The number of follow-ups and the duration of follow-ups per patient was recorded.

Main Outcomes and Measures: To determine whether high-risk and low-risk squamous cell carcinomas are being managed in line with up to date guidelines. This is measured by the number of follow-ups, the duration in months of follow up and the time between each follow-up appointment and appropriate definitive treatment.

Results: This study had a mean age of 75 at diagnosis of squamous cell carcinoma (range 55-92); 12 of these patients were male and 8 of these patients were female. When comparing high-risk and low-risk squamous cell carcinoma patients using an unpaired t-test there was no statistical significance (p=>0.05) in the length of follow up, the frequency of follow-ups or the time between each follow-up appointment. Only 60% of patients followed up were provided education on self-examination. 100% of patients received appropriate definitive treatment.

Conclusions and Relevance: Management of patients diagnosed with squamous cell carcinomas at the University Hospital of Lewisham could be improved, especially in patients with low-risk squamous cell carcinomas. By following the suggested guidelines, the trust could reduce follow up appointments and the duration of follow up for low-risk squamous cell carcinoma patients attending the dermatology clinic.

Please read full article : - www.journalirjo.com

Feasibility Study for a Biogas Plant in Jordan

This research was conducted to estimate the economic feasibility of establishing biogas plant from dairy farms manure in Al-Dlail district (Zarqa governorate). Biogas is a mixture of gas consisting of 50-70% of methane and carbon dioxide 30-45%, and other gases and water that resulted from the digestion of the biomass process with the absence of oxygen. It is used as a fuel source in many countries for the purposes of lighting and cooking. Biogas is a clean and renewable form of energy that can be sustainable solutions of large organic waste produced in animal farms and reduces the harmful environmental pollution. Also, it can be an opportunity to invest and make profits. Data for this research was collected by desk research, survey and interviews. The respondents were 31 dairy farmers; the interview included the Jordan Biogas plant manager, owners of manure plants, heads of cattle breeders associations and stakeholders in government organization. The collected data were analyzed by using SPSS, 5P's analysis, PESTEC Analysis and Canvas model to come up with a clear picture about the feasibility of biogas utilization in Zarqa governorate. The study showed the tremendous environmental pollution that happened in Al-Dlail and Al-Khaldiah areas due to the poor management of cattle farms manure, causing air, soil ground and surface water pollution. As a solution to this problem, the study showed that the most appropriate solution to this problem is to exploit these manure in the production of energy from biogas as a sustainable, and environment-friendly project. The research also included the size of the feedstock of the manure produced from cattle farms, the availability of the necessary technology to build a project of this plant, the availability of markets for its products and the legislative framework governing the renewable energy projects represented by the Ministry of Energy. The study concluded that it is possible to establish a medium-sized biogas plant. The recommendation is to facilitate government procedures for investors in renewable energy and the promotion of environmental awareness between farmers and pay more attention to the management of livestock waste by creation waste management departments in government institutions.

Please read full article : - www.journaljenrr.com


Diabetic Kidney Disease: Its Pathogenesis and Management

As the prevalence of diabetes is increasing in India, there is equal rise in the number of the patients with micro and macro vascular complications related to diabetes. The prevalence of diabetic kidney disease is increasing in Indian population because of genetic and non-genetic reasons. Because of paucity of data we don’t have exact numbers but it is the leading cause of end stage kidney disease in Indian population. Early screening for kidney disease and aggressive control of blood pressure and glycemic control can slow down and even prevent the progression of diabetic kidney disease.

Please read full article : - www.journalijanr.com

October 09 2019


Effect of Field Treatment with Selected Soil Amendments on Bacterial Wilt Incidences in Tomatoes, Capsicum and Potatoes

Aims: The aim of this study was to establish the effect of field treatment with selected soil amendments on bacterial wilt incidences in Tomatoes, Capsicum and Potatoes.

Study Design:   The study was laid out as randomized complete block design (RCBD) in split plot arrangement for two seasons in the field.

Place and Duration of Study: The experiment was conducted at the experimental plots at KARLO- NARL, Kabete Nairobi County between July, 2017- September, 2017 and between November, 2017- January, 2018.

Methodology: The three choice crops of interest (potatoes, tomatoes and capsicum) were inoculated with prepared pure bacterial isolates; 18 (2T-Kiambu-Low Land), 71(2A-Nyeri-Low Land), 67 (2A-Nyeri-High Land), 83 (2T-Kirinyaga-Highland) and MX (18/71/67/83). A plot measuring 66 m by 28.5 m was marked, cleared, ploughed, harrowed and demarcated into 150 plots each measuring 2.4 m x 3.75 m. Spacing of the host crops of interest: potato - (Tigoni variety), tomato (Caj variety) and capsicum (Califonia Wonder) was carried out at 75 cm between the rows and 30 cm within the rows. The treatments were ChalimTM, Super-hydro-grow polymer + Metham sodium, Metham sodium, Metham sodium & Orange peel, Super-hydro-grow polymer, Brassica tissues, ChalimTM + Super-hydro-grow polymer, Brassica tissue + Orange peel, Metham sodium + Super-hydro-grow polymer and Control (no amendments).

Results: Significant differences (P≤0.05) were revealed in the bacterial wilt incidences in tomatoes, capsicum and potatoes between control and all the soil amendments used in season 1 and 2 in the five R. solanacearum isolate from Kenyan highlands and lowlands. The Brassica tissue + Super-hydro-grow polymer was superior in reducing bacterial wilt incidences in tomatoes, capsicum and potatoes in the field in all the R. solanacearum isolates from Kenyan highlands and lowlands both in season 1 and 2.

Conclusion: The findings showed that organic and inorganic soil amendments could serve as a viable control of bacterial wilt in solanaceous crops caused by R. solanacearum in the field. We recommend the use of Brassica tissue + Super-hydro-grow polymer soil amendment in the control of bacterial wilt incidences in the field on solanaceous crops.

Please read full article : - www.journaljeai.com

Floral Biology and Pollen Viability of Passiflora edulis Sims

Yellow passion fruit is a native tropical fruit tree whose cultivation has evolved very rapidly in Brazil; therefore, studies on the ecology of reproduction are needed. The study of pollen viability is an important tool to observe the male potential of the species. The objective of this study was to estimate pollen viability, pollen/ovule ratio and floral biology of Passiflora edulis Sims in organic cultivation located in Bananeiras, PB, and Brazilian. The study was developed in a completely randomized design, using ten flower buds in the pre-anthesis. The analyses performed in the biology laboratory of the Center of Human, Social and Agrarian Sciences of the Federal University of Paraiba. For the pollen viability analysis, all the anthers of the ten flower buds were used, five anthers per flower, which were crushed on a glass slide and with the aid of Alexander dye, the purple pollen grains were considered viable and the green ones unviable. To measure flower morphology and biometrics, a digital pachymeter, analytical balance and ruler were used. Five stamens form the androecium; the fillets are of short length inserted below the ovary. The flowers have three stigmas with an average height of 16.5mm, an average of 32,136 viable pollens, 58 unviable pollen grains and 140 ovules per ovary, having a pollen viability of 99.8% and a pollen/ovule ratio of approximately 95/1 pollen grains per ovule. Their structures are uniform, with no biometric variations in the amount of petals, sepals, anthers and stigma length. Alexander's reactive dye was effective in staining the pollen grains of yellow passion fruit. The pollen/ovule ratio indicates that this species performs facultative autogamy as well; however, this classification alone is not sufficient to affirm its reproductive system.

Please read full article : - www.journaljeai.com

Knowledge, Attitude and Practice Regarding Infection Control Procedures among Dentists of Karachi

Aim: Infection control is crucial in any clinical setting. It is vital that all dentists must follow the infection control protocols in their clinics to prevent cross-infection. In a dental clinic, even simple dental procedures including extractions, scaling and root planning, dental crown preparations and root canal treatment, have a high risk of exposure to blood, which may cause transmission blood-borne diseases. Dentist’s compliance with these guidelines and recommendations have been recently studied in different parts of the world.  Hence this study was performed to evaluate the knowledge, attitude, and practice regarding infection control measures among private dental practioners in Karachi, Pakistan.

Study Design:   Cross-sectional study.

Place and Duration of Study: This study was conducted for a period of four months in   Karachi, Pakistan.

Materials and Methods: Present cross–sectional study was performed by interviewing 234 dentists via a questionnaire based upon various questions regarding infection control. Sample were collected using convenience sampling, from private dental clinics in Karachi, Pakistan.

Setting: Questionnaire were sent to 400 general dentist in Karachi, out of which 234 replied.

Results: Mostly (69%) dentists who took part in the study were males. Regarding infection control, most of the individuals had a comprehensive understanding of infection control techniques. Isolation was considered to play a vital role in cross-infection prevention by 97.3% of the dentists. 93.2% used autoclave for sterilization and majority had thorough knowledge of the process involved. Regarding preventive measures, 66.7% of the dentists were vaccinated against major infectious agents in our society and 92.2% took protective measures required to prevent cross-infection.

Conclusion: Knowledge, attitudes and practices regarding infection control of dentists in private clinic of Karachi, Pakistan are satisfactory.

Please read full article : - www.journaljammr.com

Financial Liberalization and Nigerian Economic Growth: 1990-2018

This study examined the Effect of Financial Liberalization on Nigerian Economic Growth (1990-2018) using secondary data from Statistical bulletin of Central Bank of Nigeria. The research work selected Nigeria as its sample and used the ECM to test the effect of the independent variables (Foreign direct investment, Interest rate, Trade openness, Foreign portfolio investment, Currency exchange rate Aggregate savings) on the dependent variable, economic growth (proxy by Gross Domestic Product). The study found that financial liberalization had negative and insignificant effect on economic growth of Nigeria. The study therefore recommends among others that Government should aim at creating conditions which make private investment attractive, avoid drastic policy reversal and implement appropriate interest rate policies.

Please read full article : - www.journalajarr.com


The Health Implication of Enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) 0157:H7: A Review on Haemolytic Uraemic Syndrome

Consumption of foods, water, vegetables, fruits, undercooked/ground/raw meat, unpasteurized milk or milk products contaminated with the bacterium strain Escherichia coli 0157:H7 has become a serious public health concern. This strain naturally inhabits the digestive tract of healthy cattle, and is released into the environment through the faeces of the animal. This strain cause haemorrhagic enterocolitis or gastroenteritis, and then haemolytic uraemic syndrome (HUS). HUS is a disorder characterised by haemolytic anaemia, low platelet count and acute kidney failure, and this disorder is a consequence of the production and action of Shiga-like toxin produced mainly by this bacterial strain (accounting for 90 percent of all cases), and occurs mainly in children less than five (5) years of age, but also occurs in the elderly. After infection with this bacterial strain, the disorder begins with intestinal perforation and ulceration leading to bloody diarrhoea, and consequently acute kidney injury, thrombocytopenia and microangiopathic haemolytic anaemia. In conjunction with clinical manifestations, several laboratory investigations (haematological, biochemical and microbiological assays) are implicated in the diagnosis of HUS. There is currently no specific treatment for HUS; however, supportive care (such as treatment of hypertension, fluid and electrolyte imbalance, haemodialysis, blood transfusion, etc) happens to be the only ameliorative measure for this disorder.

Please read full article : - www.journalajrimps.com

Chemical Composition and Nutritional Value of Cassia occidentalis Seeds

Proximate composition, amino acid, mineral content, vitamin composition and anti-nutritional factors of Cassia occidentalis seed were determined using a standard method of analysis. The result showed that the seed had the following proximate composition on dry weight (DW) bases: ash (39.00%), moisture content (2.00%), crude protein (18.50%), crude lipid (7.55%, Crude fibre (16.30%) and carbohydrate (16.75%). Six amino acid was detected (isoleucine, leucine, tyrosine, alanine, glutamine and valine) indicating that the seed is a good source of amino acid for adult. Vitamin composition (beta- carotene, thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, ascorbic acid and alpha-tocopherol) were also detected in the seed. The anti-nutrient analysis showed that the seed contains total phytate (1.25 mg/100 g) oxalate (1.70 mg/100 g) and nitrate (0.82 mg/100 g). While hydrogen cyanide was not detected. Elementary analysis revealed that the seed contain Na (0.015±0.02 mg/100 g), Cu (0.028±0.04 mg/100 g), Zn (0.441±0.10 mg/100 g), Mg (2.003±0.30 mg/100 g) and Mn (0.041±0.03 mg/100 g) while Cd, Cr and Pb were not detected. Comparing the nutrients and anti-nutrient constituent with WHO and FAO values, the result indicated that the Cassia occidentalis seed had the potential to be used as a source of nutrient in alleviating macro and micronutrient deficiencies.

Please read full article : - www.journalijbcrr.com

Evaluation of in vitro Antioxidant Activities of Ethanol Extracts of Datura innoxia Mill. Leaves and Seeds Harvested in Mali

Aims: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the in vitro antioxidant activities of Datura innoxia Mill. leaves and seeds harvested in Mali.

Place and Duration of Study: Collection of plant materials were done at Kolondieba (Mali) in june 2016. Evaluation of polyphenols and flavonoids contents, determination of antioxidant activities were done at Laboratory of Plant and Food Biochemistry and Biotechnology of University of Sciences, Techniques and Technologies of Bamako (Mali) between august 2016 and March 2017.

Methodology: The leaves and seeds were collected in Kolondieba, Mali. The phytochemical screening based on the standard methods of tube reactions has been performed with ethanol extracts. The quantitative estimation of total polyphenols was made by the Folin-Ciocalteu method and that of flavonoids by the use of aluminum trichloride. The in vitro antioxidant activities of the ethanol extracts was determined by three methods: the 1,1- diphenyl - 2- picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) test, the ferric reducing ability power (FRAP) test and the Phosphomolybdate test (PPM).

Results: The phytochemical screening revealed that leaves and seeds of this plant contains alkaloids, polyphenols, flavonoids, coumarins, tannins, triterpenes and saponin. Phenolic contents of ethanol extracts are 30.97 ± 0.33 mg equivalent gallic acid / g in leaves and 14.02 ± 0.15 mg equivalent gallic acid / g in seeds; those of flavonoids are 15.13 ± 0.2 mg equivalent of quercetin / g in the leaves and 4.93 ± 0.41 mg equivalent of quercetin / g in the seeds. The three tests showed that the leaves have a higher level of antiradical activity in vitro than seeds.

Conclusion: The results of this work showed that Datura innoxia Mill. has a good antioxidant activity which would justify its use as a potential source of natural antioxidants.

Please read full article : - www.journalarrb.com

Smart Vehicle Tracking System through IoT

This study evaluates the importance of connecting objects through the concept of the Internet of things (IoT). There has been an increasing trend in the topic of the Internet of Things in various sectors. Almost all, such as area, devices, the software is connected which all can be accessed remotely or virtually through smart devices. The most typical invention is the smartphone which that acts like the computer and sometimes even smatter smarter when connected with web & internet. But the new term smart homes where all the devices and machinery are connected to ensure that all smart processes are smart. This can be extended to a smart village, smart city and smart industry. Here we introduce a vehicle tracking system by using the concept IoT. Message Queuing Telemetry Transport (MQTT) is a protocol commonly used in the IoT platform to share information.  It can be used for both publishings and subscribe subscribing data from one end to another. Here we have used the same technique has been used in the present work to design a simulation to track the exact location of a given vehicle. IOT broker and the smart devices were integrated into the middleware enterprise service bus the middleware (ESB) architecture and the simulation was run with numerous geolocations.

Please read full article : - www.journalajrcos.com

Evaluate the Awareness of Fish Consumption among Female Students of Umm Al-Qura University in Mecca

Background: Fish is important animal sources for healthy diet. It's rich in amino and unsaturated fatty acids, vitamins, and metals. fish consumption is linked to decreased heart diseases, inflammatory disease as arthritis and prevention of cancer.

The Aim of Study: The study was to assess the Socio-demographic factors, personal attitudes, knowledge, preferences and awareness regarding fish.

Subjects and Methods: This study was conducted on 372 of UQU (Umm Al-Qura university) female students, questionnaire was used for data collection to study Socioeconomic status, fish consumption, preferences, knowledge, awareness and Statistical Analysis.

Results: This study is about the importance of fish consumption, (281) of participants were consumers. The highest consumption was (21-23) years (47.3%), scientific colleges (57.6%), single with family (84.6%) and (60.8%) their month income >6000 SR. results indicated that (55.8%) consumed fish because of nutritional value and, (31.3%) taste. Data showed (24,5%) don't consume, (37.3%) dislike fish consumption due taste and odor, most Participants (99.2%) were aware about nutritional value of fish this proves nutritional awareness, (96,2) knew that Omega-3 fatty acid in fish is useful in maintaining cardiovascular function, (92,2%) knew fishes content of micronutrients (75%) have an awareness regarding fish content of cholesterol.

Conclusion: present study revealed awareness about fishes consumption importance was the highest for older age, scientific colleges, high income, results indicated the highest ratio of participants had consumed fishes because of nutritional value, some because of taste. The majority of respondents were aware of about Omega-3 fatty acid in fish is useful in maintaining cardiovascular function, fish content of micronutrients and cholesterol.

Please read full article : - www.journalajmpcp.com

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