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October 11 2019

sciencedomaininternational

Role of National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (NREGA) in Socio-economic Development in Hoshiarpur District of Punjab

National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (NREGA) aimed at providing direct employment to the deserving rural people has been in operation for last many years. The present study had conducted to assess the role of NREGA programme with the following specific objectives: (i) To study socio-economic profile of the beneficiaries of NREGA (ii) To assess the contribution of NREGA in socio-economic development of its beneficiaries (iii) To identify the factors of success and failure (iv) To render suitable suggestions for further improvement in the NREGA programme. Research gap of this study was to analyze the profitability of social programmes being initiated by governments. Results showed Socio-economic profile of the respondents that most of the respondents were male, in the middle age group, hailing from Schedule Caste category and were having little education and low income level. The profile of beneficiaries of NREGA programme indicated that the benefits of this programme is going to the deserving people. Rural connectivity (repair of roads etc.), village cleanliness, plantation were the major areas in which the NREGA beneficiaries worked under the supervision of a Mate. The village Sarpanch proved to be the major person who made aware to the beneficiary and helped them to get employment under this programme. On an average beneficiary of NREGA got employment for 15 days in a month. All the beneficiaries of the NREGA programme got prescribed wage i.e. Rs.123 per day which was paid timely to the respondents. 1/5th of the respondents held that dependency on the farmers had reduced after joining NREGA programme and also wage rate had increased in other activities in villages due to the arrival of NREGA programme. 38 per cent of the respondents opined that NREGA activities helped them to remove idleness whereas 25 per cent of respondents felt more social recognized after joining NREGA. Overall the launching of NREGA programme had increased the demand for labour in rural areas. The non beneficiary of NREGA programme did not join the NREGA largely due to social inhibition (not ready to do labour in own village), low wage rate and irregularity of work. Irregular grants and work opportunities, less wage rate were the major constrains experienced by the beneficiaries of NREGA. Regularity in grants, generating adequate employment opportunity may prove more useful for NREGA beneficiary and society at large.

Please read full article : - www.journalcjast.com
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Formulation, in vitro and Bioavailability Assessments of Ranitidine Rectal Suppositories

The objective of the current work was to develop and evaluate suppository dosage form in order to improve ranitidine bioavailability as a substitute to the oral administration. Suppocire (different grades), Witepsol W25 and polyethylene glycol (PEG) were used as suppository bases and prepared by molding method. The prepared formulations were examined for hardness, disintegration time, melting point, content uniformity, drug release, stability and bioavailability. The hardness ranged from 3.82 to 12.53 kg and disintegration time from 13.32 to 28.22 min. The melting points of fatty bases had values from 33.94 to 36.82±0.36ºC while PEG based suppositories melting points were directly proportional chain length. Higher content uniformity was observed in PEG based suppositories due to easy incorporation of RT into water soluble base. Release was affected by hydroxyl value and molecular weight (in cases of fatty and PEG bases respectively). All formulations were relatively stable after 12 months. In vivo studies of all formulations exhibited double peak phenomena. PEG based formula (S8) showed significant higher Cmax (10.05±1 μg/ml) and AUC0-12 (58.313±3.9 µg.h/mL) than fatty bases and oral solution. In conclusion, rectal administration of S8 could be prepared as an alternative to the oral dosage form to improve bioavailability and overcome the first-pass metabolism.

Please read full article : - www.journaljpri.com

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On Summing Formulas For Generalized Fibonacci and Gaussian Generalized Fibonacci Numbers

In this paper, closed forms of the summation formulas for generalized Fibonacci and Gaussian generalized Fibonacci numbers are presented. Then, some previous results are recovered as particular cases of the present results. As special cases, we give summation formulas of Fibonacci, Lucas, Pell, Pell-Lucas, Jacobsthal, Jacobsthal-Lucas numbers and Gaussian Fibonacci, Gaussian Lucas, Gaussian Pell, Gaussian Pell-Lucas, Gaussian Jacobsthal, Gaussian Jacobsthal-Lucas numbers.

Please read full article : - www.journalair.com

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Ethnobotanical Survey of Medicinal Plants in Atakpamé, City of Plateau Region in Togo

Aim: Plants are a great source of active substances and are used to cure a lot of diseases. In order to know and list medicinal plants used by traditional therapists and herbalists from the town of Atakpamé, an ethnobotanical investigation has been conducted.

Methodology: It is a transversal and descriprtive study that has been carried out from 22th December 2018 to 16th March 2019.

Results: It has been conducted nearby 10 traditional therapists and 20 herbalists by direct interviews using a structured questionnaire. The traditional therapists were all men and the herbalists all women. This study has enabled to list 61 species belonging to 30 families grouped into 56 genera, used in the treatment of 30 affections and symptoms. The botanical families more represented were Euphorbiaceae with 8 species, Caesalpiniaceae and Apocynaceae with 5 species each. The most used organs in the recipes are leaves (44,26%). The decoction (47,54%) is the most used mode of preparation. The oral route (76,47%) is the most frequently way of administration. The most healed affections were malaria, infections and anemia with the same percentage of 16,76%. The majority of medicinal recipes are monospecifics.

Conclusion: The results of this study can be a source of information for scientific researches in phytochemistry and pharmacology.

Please read full article : - www.journalejmp.com
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Determination of Some Heavy Metals in Soils and Vegetables Samples from Kericho West Sub-county, Kenya

The present study was carried out to investigated the presence of heavy metals (essential and non- essential); Pb, Fe, Cu, Mn and Cd in soils and vegetables such as Brassica oleracea, Brassica oleracea Acephala and Amaranthus palmeri. These soils and vegetables were collected randomly from local farms in Kericho West Sub-County. The samples were analysed for heavy metal by Inductively Coupled Plasma Emission Spectrophotometer (ICPE 9000) to determine the levels of the heavy metals. The mean concentrations of the heavy metals ranged in vegetables:- Manganese (86.33-113.00 mg/kg), Copper (15.67-36.00 mg/kg), Iron (319.33-977.67 mg/kg), Cadmium (10.33-29.00 mg/kg) and Lead (31.67-53.67 mg/kg) as well as in the soils; Mn (172.33-201.00 mg/kg), Cu (1.33-3.33 mg/kg), Fe (63.67-98.00 mg/kg), Cd (3.67-5.33 mg/kg) and Pb (5.00-5.67 mg/kg). The data obtained was analysed by using SPSS version 20.0 for descriptive statistics and one- way ANOVA. From the analysis of heavy metals in vegetables, from Sosiot the concentration of Manganese and copper were significantly different at p-value < 0.05, while Iron, Cadmium, Lead and Manganese were not significantly different at p-value > 0.05; from Kabianga Division, Manganese and Iron were significantly different at p-value < 0.05. Copper, Lead and Cadmium were not significantly different at p-value > 0.05; from Kiptere Division, Manganese, Iron and Copper had no significant difference at p-value < 0.05. Cadmium and lead were significantly different at p-value > 0.05. Manganese had the lowest transfer factor between 0.42 and 1.15. The highest ratios were observed from copper ranging from 15.67 to 36.00 in all vegetables.

Please read full article : - www.journalcsij.com
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Assessment of Challenges Associated with Waste Disposal in Zuru Town, Kebbi State

The topic of environmental protection has attained highest importance in this era globally but the practices of basic concepts of waste disposal are often neglected. People around the globe are aware of the impact of improper waste disposal practices, but the negative attitude of implementation gives rise to chaotic situations. This study was conducted to assess the challenges associated with waste disposal in Zuru town, Kebbi state. This cross sectional study was conducted using a well-designed and validated questionnaire. Purposive sampling method was adopted to select three residential categories. After which Yamane’s formula was adopted to arrive at the sampling size of 312. The data was analyzed using frequency, percentage, Chi-square and ANOVA. The result shows that 58.3% of the respondents are female, 32.1% fall between the ages 30 and 39 years, while only 3.8% are above 60 years. Majority, (70.2%) possessed primary education; many (36.2%) are business personnel and only 9.6 of the respondents earn above ₦100,000 per month. Result further shows that majority (80%) of the waste are non-biodegradable. Result also revealed that many (42.3%) of the households burns their waste. The result shows that 52.6% of households are ignorant of the problems associated with indiscriminate disposal of waste in the area while 47.4% claimed they are aware. A portion (61.2%) of the households identified environmental pollution as the major problem of indiscriminate waste disposal, 22.4% of the household claimed outbreak of diseases as the problem of indiscriminate waste disposal, 8.3% and 8.0% of them identified other problems and breeding of disease pathogens as the major problems of indiscriminate disposal of waste respectively. The level of ignorant of Zuru households about the problems associated with indiscriminate disposal of waste could be ascribed to inadequate sensitization about the menace of the improper disposal of waste in the area or low level of education. The study concludes that the waste generation from the different residential categories in Zuru town is both the biodegradable and non-biodegradable. The study recommends adequate sensitization on the menace of burning waste.

Please read full article : - www.journalajgr.com
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Socio Economic Characteristics of the Households That Generate Waste in Zuru Town, Kebbi State

The investigation was conducted on socio economic characteristics of the households that generate waste in Zuru town, kebbi state. Data was derived from two sources, primary and secondary. Primary data was collected through questionnaire administration, in-depth interviews and Focus Group Discussion from the respondents. Secondary data on population and household sampling was derived from the recent (2015) house listing exercise by the National Primary Health Care Agency for the Polio Immunization exercise. List of settlement was sourced from the NPC (2006) Census and housing data. 312 households were given one basket each by the researchers to ensure unbiased determination of the types of waste generated by the three residential categories in the study area. The data was analyzed using frequency, percentage, Chi-square, and ANOVA. The result shows that 58.3% of the respondents are female, 32.1% fall between the ages 30 and 39 years, while only 3.8% are above 60 years. Majority, (70.2%) possessed primary education; many (36.2%) are business personnel and only 9.6 of the respondents earn above ₦100,000 per month. Result further shows that majority (80%) of the waste are non-biodegradable. Result also revealed that many (42.3%) of the households burns their waste. The Chi-square of association test revealed a statistically significant relationship only between the occupation of the respondents and waste generation (ᵪ (3) =8.782, p=.032). The three-way ANOVA also revealed no significant difference in waste generation among the residential categories in Zuru town (F (1, 90) = 2.215, p= .140). The study concludes that government should adequately sensitize households on menace of burning waste anyhow, since majority of the respondents are not aware of the health hazards associated with the burning of waste.

Please read full article : - www.journalajoger.com

October 10 2019

sciencedomaininternational

The Effect of Air Dried Leaf Powder and Burnt Leaf Ash of Different Plants on Root-knot Nematode (Meloidogyne spp.) on Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L. Moench)

The effect of air dried leaf powder and burnt leaf ash of different plants on the control of root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne spp.) on Okra was investigated in a pot experiment. The experiment was laid out in a Completely Randomized Design with nine treatments each replicated four times. The treatments included: burnt leaf ashes and air dried leaf powders of Baphia nitida, Pentaclethra macrophylla and Delonix regia, a synthetic nematicide (Carbofuran 3G) and two control which included inoculated but untreated (control 1) and un-inoculated and untreated (control 2) pots. The plants were inoculated with 1000 nematode eggs (Meloidogyne spp.), two weeks after emergence. Three days after, the treatments were applied at the rate of 30 g each, while the synthetic nematicide (Carbofuran 3G) at 3 g/per pot. Parameters recorded were: plant height, number of leaves, fresh and dry shoot weights, fresh root weight, and number and weight of pods per plant as plant growth parameters. Number of galls, number of nematode eggs in roots and number of juveniles in soil as nematode parameters. Results obtained indicated significant differences among the treatments in most parameters recorded and compared to controls. Generally, results from air dried leaf powder of Baphia nitida and burnt leaf ash of Delonix regia were better and compared favorably with the nematicide treated plants.

Please read full article : - www.journaljeai.com
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Residual Effect of Organic Manure (Biochar and Cowdung) on the Growth of Pterocarpus osun

The present study aims to determine the residual effects of organic manure (biochar and cowdung) growth of P. osun under a screen house condition. Implementing the use of biochar and different organic sources has been proposed as an option for improving soil fertility, restoring degraded land and sequester large amounts of carbon (C) over the long-term. The study was carried out in Forestry Research Institute of Nigeria. Pterocarpus osun seeds were collected from the botanical garden at the University of Ibadan. The media for planting (soil) and treatments used had already been established from previous experiments done by using same species (Pterocarpus osun). Seedlings of P. osun were raised in a germination basket for four (4) weeks and twenty four (24) healthy seedlings were selected from the basket on the basis of uniform treatments and then transplanted into the already established media and the experiments were arranged in a completely randomized design (CRD). Data on growth parameters (plant height, number of leaves), collar diameter and dry matter yields were generated and subjected to analysis of variance. The significant means were separated by using LSD at 5% level of significance. The results showed that the interaction of Biochar + Cow dung (30 t/ha +135 g) had the highest diameter with a value of 5.17 mm when compared with the control (no amendments). The   highest plant height was recorded by the interaction of biochar and cow dung at 20 t/ha +135 g with mean value of 11.73 cm while sole application of cow dung also performed well in number of leaves with a mean value 11.50 as compared with the control (no amendment). It is concluded that there is a residual effect in the interaction of biochar and cow dung, which ultimately improves the performance of Pterocarpus osun.

Please read full article : - www.journalcjast.com
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First Evidence of West Nile Virus in Hodeidah, Yemen: Clinical and Epidemiological Characteristics

Introduction: West Nile Virus (WNV) infection is an important arthropod-borne zoonosis viral disease. This virus is neglected in Yemen especially in Hodeidah.

Aim of the Study: The purpose of this study was to detect WNV infection, determine the epidemiological and clinical characteristics within febrile patients in Hodeidah city and to determine some risk factors associated with WNV infection.

Materials and Methods: 136 febrile patients in a hospital base study were diagnosed in Center of Tropical Medicine and Infectious Diseases (CTMID), Authority of General Al-Thawara Hospital, Hodeidah, Yemen from January of 2017 to December of 2017. WNV infection was detected by enzyme linkage immune sorbent assay (ELISA) on serum samples.

Results and Discussion: The results showed that 5 cases (3.67%) were WNV – positive namely IgM that was detected in winter and spring seasons, the most prevalent antibodies of WNV were IgG namely 75 cases (55.14%). Most common symptoms were fever, headache, fatigue, weakness, arthralgia, myalgia and photophobia. The treatment based on the intravenous therapy (IV) with anti-pyritic, plasma in some cases and all cases were recovered while mortality rate was 00%.

Conclusion: WNV was detected in Hodeidah which placed in Tehama "western Yemen", as first time by our preliminary study that confirmed the evidence of WNV IgM and IG antibodies presence on 2017, in order to increase safety of diagnosis of febrile diseases, it is essential to continue surveillance of this emerging infection, suggesting that this emergence has been transported by migratory birds from wintering areas to Tehama region.

Please read full article : - www.journalijtdh.com
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GIS-based Network Analysis for Optimisation of Public Facilities Closure: A Study on Libraries in Leicestershire, United Kingdom

Many public facilities in the United Kingdom are being closed without consideration to their users, leading to social exclusion. Hence, this study investigated the use of geographical information systems (GIS) in identifying public facilities which can be closed while saving cost and minimizing distance, using the libraries in Leicestershire as case study. Data for the study were obtained from secondary sources through the internet. This study used the location-allocation tool model, within the geographical information environment, to identify a set of libraries that should be closed in Leicestershire to save 20% cost and optimised for the needs of unemployed people, children of school age and pensioners (people over 65 years). Based on these considerations, the study identified the following ten libraries for closure: Barwell, Blaby, Cosby, Desford, Enderby, Groby, Hathern, Kirby Muxloe, Mounstsorrel and Sapcote. If this is adopted, it therefore means that the distance that users will need to travel from their homes to libraries in the new order would have been minimised and access not denied. This study has therefore demonstrated the use of GIS in decision making. This method is an innovation in the use of the model and should be used to evaluate library accessibility and identify those that could be closed without much negative impacts at the national level and for other facilities elsewhere.

Please read full article : - www.journaljgeesi.com
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Application of GIS on the Identification of Suitable Areas for Water Conservation Technologies in the Upper Tana Watershed of the Central Highlands of Kenya

Low adoption of soil water conservation technologies has been one of the main causes for decreased agricultural productivity in the Upper Tana Catchment of Kenya. Proper identification of locations to scale-out the individual technologies necessary to improve water conservation is a key determinant for the rate of adoption. Our main aim was to identify the suitable sites for water conservation technologies using the suitability model created by the model builder function in ArcGIS 10.5®. The model combined the thematic layers of soil texture, slope, rainfall, and stream order, which were acquired from assorted online sources. The factors were converted to raster format and reclassified based on their suitability and were assigned fixed scores and weights by use of multi influencing factor (MIF) method. The suitability evaluation was carried out by use of weighted overlay to produce suitability classes for each of the water conservation technique. The delineated suitability maps indicated that check dams are highly suitable in 50% of the study area. Mulching, on the other hand, is highly suitable for 49% of the study area. Zai pits are highly suitable in 43% of the study area. Majority of the study area is moderately suitable for the use of terraces, covering 41% of the study area. The highly suitable areas for the Checkdams are Machakos, Kitui, Tharaka-Nithi and lower parts of Embu. The highly suitable areas for mulching are Kirinyaga, Murang’a, Nyandarua and Nyeri. The highly suitable areas for the Zai pits are Kitui, lower parts of Tharaka-Nithi and the highly suitable areas for the terraces are Murang’a, Nyeri and Kirinyaga. Furthermore, the results demonstrated the effectiveness of GIS in delineating the suitable areas for the use of water conservation technologies.

Please read full article : - www.journalijpss.com
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Performance Evaluation of Greenhouse Type Dryers for Red Pepper: Technical and Economic Aspect

In this study, the possibilities of drying the spices in Kahramanmaraş at the scale of the Red Pepper on a scale with plastic-covered high tunnel greenhouse type dryer were investigated. For this purpose, the red pepper was cut into two pieces, the seed house was removed and the shelves were placed in the vertical direction with 30 cm intervals in which the shelves were arranged at intervals of 2, 3, 4 and 5 kg / m2 density of the shelves in the greenhouse were layered in thin layers. The drying was continued until a fifth of the mass of the material laid on the shelves was reduced. This time corresponds to the first five to six hours of drying. The ambient temperature rises to 55-65°C during the whole day. The products are dried in 26-27 hours in drying trials in first and second. Products which dried in the greenhouse have been exposed to approximately 2-4% more moisture loss than the products that are dried on a shelf 50 cm high from the ground. It has been determined that the optimum loading capacity can be increased to 187.5 kg in terms of technical and economic performance criteria taken into consideration in the red pepper drying study carried out in 3 different periods. If the floor area and height of the plastic tunnel are evaluated effectively and furthermore, this figure will increase in a commercial tunnel of plastic. On the other hand, according to the results obtained in the first period with the optimum loading capacity calculated, it is determined that the plastic tunnel dryer can meet the first investment, operation and fixed expenses in a season and it is a profitable investment.

Please read full article : - www.journalair.com
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Customer Satisfaction towards Online Shopping in Sri Lanka: Moderating Effect of Income Level

Aim: Online shopping is the most popular feature around the world as well as in Sri Lanka. People are tending to do online shopping by using those social media and also by using online shopping websites. As well as most of the business organizations try to use online shopping to sell their product and to increase their market. The objective of this research is to assess the factors influencing customer satisfaction while doing online shopping. Further, the study tested the moderating effect of income level on the relationship between factors influencing customer satisfaction on online shopping.

Design: This study used the deductive approach and research design was based on quantitative and cross sectional. The targeted population for this study is customers living around the Colombo area, those who have internet facility in their living place or working place. The sample size was 380. The survey method is employed to collect data through a standardizes questionnaire. The selected dimensions (customer satisfaction, convenience, security, website functionality and customer service) were measured by using a Likert scale measurement items, acknowledging the prior studies.

Findings: According to the survey findings of this study, Convenience, Web site functionality, Customer service have significant influence on customer satisfaction on online shopping. The results also indicated that the income level has a significant moderating effect on the relationship between Convenience, Web site Functionality, Security and Customer service and Customer satisfaction on online shopping.

Implications: According to the findings of this study online retailers can identified that their consumers are more concern about the website functionality, customer service, and convenience of the online shopping. Therefore, online retailers can develop their website by adding more functions which will be helpful and easy for the customers and they can further improve their customer service at the prior purchase level as well as at the post purchase level in order to attract more customers and retain the existing customers with their business.

Please read full article : - www.journalajarr.com
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Anthelmintic Activities of Hexacosa-9, 11-dienoic Acid and 3-hydroxyurs-12-en-28-oic Acid Isolated from Spermacoce verticillata

The phytochemical screening, anthelmintics, and characterization of Spermacoce verticillata crude ethanolic extracts were carried out using standard methods. The research is aimed at investigating the in-vitro anthelmintic activity of Spermacoce verticillata and Cochlospermum tinctorium plants for possible active components. The results of phytochemical screening showed the presence of Alkaloids, Flavonoids, Tannin, Phenol, Fatty acid and Cardiac glycoside, Terpenoid and Saponin. The result of the anthelmintic activities showed that Spermacoce verticillata have paralysis time ranging from 25.9 -71.6 mins with death times ranging from  39 - 90.1 mins at concentrations range between 25 - 100 mg/cm3 The results of Chromatographic and Spectroscopic Analyses using TLC, CCH, IR, NMR GC-MS of c leads to the Isolation of two compounds namely Hexacosa-9,11-dienoic acid (fatty acid) and 3-hydroxyurs-12-en-28-oic acid (Pentacyclic triterpenoid) with paralysis/death time at concentration of 50 mg/cm3  of 22.5 mins and 36.3 mins for the fatty acid and 13.2 mins and 20.1 mins for the pentacyclic triterpenoid. The results were compared with standard drug (Albendazole) which showed higher activity than the crude extracts but lower than the isolated compounds. The results of this work therefore confirmed the traditional claim of using the plant for the treatment of helminthiasis disease.

Please read full article : - www.journalcsij.com
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Phytochemical Screening, Elemental and Proximate Analysis of Maerua angolensis (Capparaceaea) Stem Bark

This work was designed to explore the phytochemicals, elemental and proximate analysis of Maerua angolensis Stem bark were determined using standard analytical methods. The phytochemical screening showed alkaloid (271.30 mg /100 g), tannins (340.25 mg /100 g), flavonoid (176.85 mg /100 g), reducing sugar (41.20 mg /100 g), glycosides (184.30 mg /100 g), steroids (112.30 mg /100 g), anthraquinones (167.85 mg /100 g) and saponin (225.61 mg /100 g). Also the elemental analysis carried out revealed that the concentration of Manganese (0.02 9 mg/kg), Copper (0.059 mg/kg), Calcium (0.070 mg/kg), Sodium (7.530 mg/kg), Zinc (0.028 mg/kg), Chromium (0.158 mg/kg), Lead (0.007 mg/kg), Iron (0.100 mg/kg) and Magnesium (0.020 mg/kg). The result of the proximate composition showed  that the moisture, fat, crude protein, crude fibre, ash, carbohydrate and energy value content of the samples were 3.58±0.04%, 6.25±0.09%, 21.79±0.26%, 48.51±2.31%, 13.28±1.86%, 6.60±1.79% and 169.81±8.49  kcal/100 g respectively. The pH value obtained was 5.65±0.09. These indicate that the plant can be effective source for drugs. The elemental and proximate analysis shows that it contained appreciable amount of nutrients which could be included in diets to supplement human daily nutrient needs and animal.

Please read full article : - www.journalijbcrr.com
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Impact of Marine Ecosystem Disturbances on Sources of Income in Ibeno Local Government Area of Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria

This research investigated the impact of marine ecosystem disturbances on the sources of income of the people in Ibeno Local Government Area of Akwa Ibom State. The main objective was to determine the influence of environmental disturbances on the sources of income of people in the oil producing coastal areas of Ibeno. The study took a period of two years and involved collection of water samples from twelve locations in six coastal communities in Ibeno for laboratory analysis, and administration of 410 questionnaires out of which 400 were used to extract data on sources of income (occupation) and environmental disturbances. Multiple regression analysis and Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) were employed to determine the relationship between sources of income (Y) and environmental disturbances (Xs). In the final analysis, the water physiochemical property test shows a relatively normal nutrients loading in the area but act in synergy with others in impacting on the environment. Seven elements of environmental disturbances were identified; erosion, acid-rain, deforestation, tidal actions, oil pollution, coastal flooding and rise in sea level. The study equally revealed that fishing was the major source of income of the coastal people and was mostly affected. In the regression analysis, the environmental disturbances and the sources of income (occupation) relate significantly at 0.5% probability test. The study concluded that the synergic effect of acid-rain due to oil activities, run-off sediments deposited in the river, direct and accidental discharge of crude into the river, coastal flooding/tidal actions that spread the pollutants along the coast and mangrove removal, destroyed fishes, reduced catch and cause serious decline in the income base of the people in Ibeno. Thus, it is important to promote environmental protection, conservation and sustainable harvesting to remedy the situation.

Please read full article : - www.journalajee.com
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The Reappearance of Sapphic Fragments in the Italian Renaissance

In this article the survival of the Sapphic fragments of the ancient times in Renaissance period is examined. More specifically the reappearance of the Sapphic verses is presented concerning the first publications (editio princeps) and the most widespread texts of ancient authors during West Renaissance. These texts were the primary sources, on which the later publications of the Sapphic work were based, while they also had a great influence on the reception of the ancient poet by the Renaissance writers.

Please read full article : - www.journalajl2c.com

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Efficiency of Microfinance Banks’ Lending to Agriculture in Imo State, Nigeria

The study analysed the efficiency of microfinance banks’ lending to agriculture in Imo state, Nigeria. It analysed the cost of loan recovery in relation to the total loan recovered. Purposive sampling technique was used in the study. A list of microfinance banks was collected from the Owerri office of central bank of Nigeria which had 43 microfinance banks in the state. This formed the sampling frame from which 26 microfinance banks were purposively selected. The purposive selection was based on the microfinance banks that had the highest number of agricultural loan beneficiaries. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics and efficiency of loan recovery model. The result revealed that the efficiency index of the microfinance banks ranged from 0 to 0.5 and a loan and a mean of 0.06. The result further showed that 96.1% of the banks were within the index of 0 and 0.2. This implies that for every one thousand naira recovered from beneficiaries of microfinance banks, they spent sixty naira from their interest in recovering the loan. The results further revealed that 61.54% of the banks use additional guarantors to recover their loans while unconventional methods of recovery such as the use of the police accounted for 38.46% of the recovery technique. It was therefore recommended and concluded that since these microfinance banks are efficient in their loan recovery, they should make micro loans available to potential borrowers who want to invest in agriculture.

Please read full article : - www.journalajaees.com

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Impact of Off-seasonal Migration of Hilly Tribes in Tiruvannamalai District of Tamilnadu

Aim: The present study was designed to study the impact of off-seasonal migration of hilly tribes in Tirvannamalai district of Tamilnadu.

Study design: Ex-post facto research design.

Place and Duration of the study: Tiruvannamalai district was purposively selected for this study since it is one among the districts where hilly tribes’ population is high.  This study was confined with seven villages namely Kovilur, Nammiyampattu, Kanamali, Veerappanur, Melsilambai, Palamarathur and Kuttakarai of Jamunamarathur (Jawadhu hills) block during April 2017 to November 2017.

Methodology: The sample size entailed of 240 respondents selected from these villages with proportionate random sampling method.  The respondents were interviewed personally by a well-structured and pre-tested interview schedule.  The collected data were analysed with percentage analysis statistical method.  The findings on the results were interpreted with relevant conclusion.

Results: In this context, the impact of off-seasonal migration of hilly tribes in Tiruvannamalai district were thoroughly analysed and discussed with nine sub-headings.  The overall impact of migration revealed that majority of the migrant hilly tribes had no changes in agriculture (91.25%), healthcare and sanitation (95.00%), urban contact (91.25%), savings and investment (88.64%), standard of living (66.00%), social status (64.08%), consumption pattern (52.17%) and purchasing power (52.17%).  Increased change observed with the employment status (80.20%) of the migrant hilly tribes.

Conclusion: Since, the income obtained from the off-seasonal migration activities, but it is mostly spent on debt borrowed by the hilly tribes for the seasonal activities and further improvement can’t be obtained and hence necessary credit facilities have been provided for the migrant hilly tribes.

Please read full article
: - www.journalajaees.com
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