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June 17 2019

sciencedomaininternational

Peer Review History: Petrography, Structural Characteristics and natural resource of Igue Oke Igarra space Southwestern African nation

Igue Oke is found within the sou'-west of Igarra Auchi sheet 266 sou'-west, southwest basement complicated of African nation. The rock varieties area unit created from meta-sediments which has marbles, migmatitic schists, meta-conglomerates, amphibolites, calc-silicate rocks that have undergone many deformations, geologic process and additionally intruded by syn-tectonic eruptive granitic rocks in Pan-African time. This geologic process is that the longest and lasted for concerning three hundred million years. Minerals within the rocks consists of quartz, k-feldspar, biotite, albite-plagioclase, micas, dolomite and spar because the major minerals whereas the opaque minerals area unit major accent. There area unit 2 phases of change episodes that are known within the rocks of this space. A regional foliation F1 with open, close, tight to isoclinal folds. Secondly, deformation followed that gave rise to shear zones, slickensides associated fault options in an surroundings of denotative  tectonics. The dominant major folding within the space is that the NW-SE trend and also the foliation F2 is related to slickensides and faults superimposed on the sooner shaped structures. The structural part within the study space shows multidirectional orientations. Rocks within the space have a general and consistent trend as discovered by the applied math knowledge on rose diagrams and stereographic projection plots in NNW–SSE, and some N-S to NE-SW directions. there's additionally associate E-W and EEN-WWE orientation that area unit in all probability relicts of Pre-Pan-African geologic process. Exploitation of granites for aggregates has been occurring with established production corporations for granites, whereas mining of marble by small-scale miners has been occurring while not correct style or set up for Health, Safety and surroundings HSE inflicting badland topography, a 3 bench mine style with reclamation procedures are going to be applicable for the world.

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Peer Review History: Effects of antiacid (Zantac) Drug on the secretion Level, spermatozoon Head Abnormality and Histo-Architecture of the testicle of anomaly Male Mice

The purposes of this study area unit to work out the impact of antacid (Ranitidine) drug on sexual hormones (Testosterone and Prolactin), spermatozoon head abnormality, and histopathological activity on anomaly male mice testes.

Two doses of the drug were used: a thousand and 2000 mg/kg, additionally to a negative management cluster. every cluster enclosed four mice and therefore the drug administrated orally as (0.1 ml) per day for one4 days, then the mice were sacrificed on the day fifteen for laboratory assessment.

The result showed that the drug cause increase the share of spermatozoon head abnormality that reaches to (48.3%) and (22.8%) for 2000 mg/kg and a thousand mg/kg severally as compared to regulate cluster (11.1%). The male sex secretions additionally laid low with the drug and therefore the level of androgenic hormone hormone decrease to (1.07 ng/ml) in 2000 mg/kg and (3.42 ng/ml) in a thousand mg/kg, whereas the extent of secretion on top of things cluster is (14.07 ng/ml). The prolactin hormone show increase in the level at dose 2000mg/kg it's (115 ng/ml) and in dose a thousand mg/kg the extent its (43 ng/ml) these price terribly high compared with management cluster (36 ng/ml) because of the impact of the drug on the hormone. The histopathological examination shows injury within the epithelial duct and changes within the wall of the humor tube additionally the gametogenesis otherwise be laid low with the drug within which is stop and a few of epithelial duct show no look of gametogenesis and additionally cause depletion to the wall of the epithelial duct.


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May 31 2019

sciencedomaininternational

Peer Review History: Impact Assessment of National Food Security Mission (NFSM) on Pulses Production in state, Asian country - AN Economic Analysis

The present study was conducted to look at the economic impact of NFSM on pulses economy within the elite districts of state state. The study amount was divided into Period-I (Pre NFSM) from 1998-99 to 2007-08, amount –II (Post NFSM) from 2008-09 to 2015-16 and Period-III (Overall period) from 1998-99 to 2015-16. Primary knowledge for Pigeonpea and chickpea crops were collected from Kalaburagi and Vijayapur districts of state severally. The results of the compound rate of growth analysis showed that in Period-III each space and production of elite pulses exhibited vital positive growth. The sources of change within the variance of elite pulses production unconcealed that the change in residual and alter in space variance contributed the most important share towards destabilizing the assembly of Pigeonpea and chickpea severally in the state. The results of the budgeting technique unconcealed that the profit per rupees was additional in beneficiary farms as compared to non-beneficiary farms within the cultivation of each the chosen pulses.

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Peer Review History: Helium-Neon optical maser Effects on Human blood by qualitative analysis In vitro Study

Low-power helium-neon optical maser recently has been used numerously in medical applications. FTIR and UV-Vis qualitative analysis technique is used to review the spectral variations within the humour of blood samples.


Aims: to review (He-Ne) optical maser (λ= 632 nm, power=2 mW) impact on human blood, when irradiated to completely different times from ten min to fifty min.


Study Design: Human blood Irradiated to   (He-Ne) optical maser (λ= 632 nm, power=2 mW). 


Place and period of Study: Institute of optical maser, Sudan University of science and technology (SUST), Soba Hospital, Khartoum- Sudan, Gregorian calendar month 2018.


Methodology: Blood samples were collected from healthy volunteers; blood sample exposed to (H-N) optical maser and management compared; UV-Vis photometer and FTIR were accustomed study the impact of laser radiation.


Results: spectrum and FTIR spectra of blood are compared before and when He-Ne optical maser radiation shows, a major decrease in intensity. FTIR spectrum of non exposed blood showed the peaks thanks to O-H (free group), C=O (amide I group), N=O (nitro group), and C-H (aromatic group). N-H (Amino acid (amide II) optical maser radiation changes in coefficient in FTIR spectra for C=O cluster and O-H, N=O, the share of coefficient were multiplied. the foremost effects are found once blood irradiated to He-Ne optical maser radiation for ten and twenty min and coefficient decreases for C-H, and N-H, thanks to denaturation of the supermolecule.


Conclusion: Photodegradation of blood elements thanks to absorption of optical maser radiation causes changes within the structure and conformational changes in the peptide and reduce intensity.


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May 28 2019

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Influence of Different Concentrations of 1-Methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) and Storage Conditions on the Physico-chemical Properties and Shelf-life of Tomatoes (Solanum lycopersicum L.)

‘Power’ tomato cultivar was harvested at the mature green stage and studied to determine how different 1-Methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) concentrations and storage conditions may influence its quality and shelf-life. A 3 x 2 factorial arrangement in Completely Randomized Design (CRD) was used and it was replicated three times. The factors were the tomato cultivar: ‘Power’, three 1-MCP concentration levels: 1 ppm, 2 ppm, untreated was 0 ppm and two storage conditions: Ambient and refrigerator conditions. The research was conducted between January and May 2017 at the Department of Horticulture, KNUST in Kumasi, Ghana. The 1-MCP concentration required were obtained by adding 100 ml of heated distilled water at 50°C to appropriate amounts of 1-MCP (MaxFresh, 3.3%) powder to obtain the 1 ppm and 2 ppm concentrations. After the 1-MCP powder has completely dissolved, it was then placed in a sealed bottle with a mini fan attached and then placed in the treatment chamber and released in a form of vapour on fruits and sealed immediately to avoid gas loss for a period of 24 hours. They were then stored in the refrigerator and ambient conditions at a temperature of 13°C-15°C and 29.5°C with Relative Humidity of 60-75% and 80-85% respectively. There was a significantly (P<0.01) delayed in ripening as characterized by changes in pH, firmness and total titratable acidity. Tomatoes treated with 1 ppm and 2 ppm of 1-MCP concentrations had delayed ripening when stored in the refrigerator and as a result had a longer shelf-life of 74 and 90 days respectively compared to fruits that were not treated and kept at ambient condition which took 60 days. There is confirmation from these results that the use of 1-MCP have saleable outlook for those who grow and trade in a way of delaying the ripening of green tomatoes.

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July 16 2018

sciencedomaininternational

International Research Journal of Pure and Applied Chemistry

Abstracts

 

Dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) have emerged as an efficient third generation solar cells. This is a photo-electrochemical cell where the junction consists of a semiconductor–electrolyte interface.  The DSSC was fabricated using TiO2 nanoparticles, wide band gap semiconductor, as anode. Graphite-PSS: PEDOT as effective counter electrode due to high work function which enhances cells performance and iodide-triiodide as redox electrolyte. Though conventional Si-Solar cells have still dominated the market, DSSCs provide a cheap and efficient alternate for solar energy conversion. Till date metallic dyes based DSSCs have showed highest efficiency. But higher cost, relative low abundance of most metals like Ruthenium and environmental hazards limits their extensive use in the research. DSSC needs to be less cheap and more efficient than Si-solar cells to replace later commercially. Organic dyes offer a low cost alternate at the cost of efficiency for DSSC. In this paper new organic dyes Phloxin B, Amido Black and Indigo Carmine were used as photosensitizers. The photoelectrochemical properties were observed for these dyes in different solvents at 1.5 AM condition.

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Review on the Potentials of Cow (Bos indicus) Based Bioenhancers in Increasing Crop Yield and Farmers Income as well as the Soil Health and Environmental Sustainability

Abstracts

 

The haphazard use of the chemical fertilizers and pesticides has detrimental effects on soil health, human health, groundwater quality and environment. This will cause more dangerous consequences for future productivity. Present status of all food grain production is in enough quantity for the population of our country but there is need to enhance the quality of food production, quality of soil, quality of ground water and quality of a healthy environment for better livelihood. These qualities can be obtained by replacing toxic chemicals through natural and organic input which is more vital for present prospect and future outlook. The “Cow” occupies the highest place of honour in Indian civilization. She is supposed to fulfil all desires of human beings, hence known as “Kamdhenu”. Owing to ignorance, after stopping of milk production, they are left uncared for forced to live extensively and eat polythene and other wastes in towns and cities. It is interesting that in Indian agricultural systems “Cow” particularly those with a hump (indigenous breed) is one of the key components, hence provision of at least one cow per hectare need to be promoted for Jaivik Krishi activities in organic farming. This review paper attempts to bring together the different use of cow based organic formulations in crop production and protection. It has been reported that organic formulation in crop production is productive and sustainable, but there is a need for strong support to it in the form of manifestation of subsidies, agricultural extension services and intensive research with solid proofs. With these efforts we can fulfil the dream of our present government; to double the income of Indian farmers.

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sciencedomaininternational

Neurological Impact of Zinc Excess and Deficiency In vivo

Abstracts

 

Zinc is an essential mineral that can cause pathological effects whether in excess or deficiency.  Zinc is a component for over 250 enzymes and is required for cell growth, cell division, and cell function. Zinc is found in muscle and bones, with the prostrate, liver, skin, and kidney having detectable levels of zinc. However, zinc present in excess or deficiency can cause significant pathology in patients that include deleterious effects neurologically. Zinc in excess in vivo can cause focal neuronal pathology, while zinc deficiency can bring about mental lethargy, neuropsychiatric disorders, and reduced nerve conduction. Zinc is assimilated within the body by oral ingestion, dermal exposure, and pulmonary inhalation. Although not generally viewed as a cause of cancer, studies suggest that zinc is associated with progression of prostate malignancy. Toxic levels of zinc have been shown to induce lethargy, neurotoxicity, and gliotoxicity. High levels of zinc causes neuronal death in cortical cell tissue culture. Zinc is known to accumulate following the death of neurons in global ischemia. Therefore, zinc deficiency or excess is of significant clinical concern.

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July 14 2018

sciencedomaininternational

Zinc Recovery from Spent Chemical Sorbent by Dry Chlorination and Electrodeposition from Chloride Solutions

Abstracts

 

Spent catalysts, chemical traps and sorbents are types of solid wastes generated worldwide, which contain potentially valuable or environmentally hazardous materials that need to be recovered before final deposition. Chlorination and electrolysis are unit processes applied in extractive metallurgy for metal extraction from poly-metallic or low-grade ores. The primary aim of this study was to assess the possibility of applying pyrometallurgy (chlorination) and electrometallurgy to spent chemical sorbents used as sulfur traps and to recover zinc. The spent sorbents may include zinc in different phases: ZnO, ZnS and Zn0.65Al 0.35(OH)2(CO3)0.167(H2O)0.5. It was found that 96.8% of the zinc can be separated by dry chlorination at 475ºC with pure chlorine. Before chlorination, addition of CaCO3 (17 wt.%) is necessary to prevent formation of ZnSO4. The zinc chloride obtained is dissolved in water and electrolyzed to generate chlorine which can be recycled to the chlorination reactor, and metallic zinc as a non-adherent layer on the cathode. The electrolyte composition is 65 g.L−1 ZnCl2 with 20 g.L−1 H3BO3 and 200 g.L−1 KCl. It is possible to recover pure zinc (99.9 wt.%) from chemical sorbents with the methodology proposed. These results are important for the development of new and more efficient recovery strategies to prevent environmental damage and obtain valuable elements from wastes.

 

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Antibacterial Potentiality and Brine Shrimp Lethality Bioassay of the Methanol Extract of Trema orientalis Leaves

Abstracts
Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the antibacterial and cytotoxic activities of methanol extract of Trema orientalis leaves.

Materials and Methods: Antibacterial activity of Trema orientalis leaves was tested against two Gram-positive and seven Gram-negative bacteria by disc diffusion assay. The liquid microdilution assay was used for the determination of the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). The brine shrimp lethality bioassay analyzed the cytotoxic activity of methanol extract of Trema orientalis leaves.

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sciencedomaininternational

Response of Cotton and Soybean Intercropping System to Integrated Nutrient Management

Abstracts

Aims: Field experiment was conducted to study the integrated nutrient management on yield, all yield components and resource use efficiency of cotton and soybean intercropping system.

Study Design: Randomized complete block design with three replications and twenty treatments.

Place and Duration of Study: Plot number ‘101’ of ‘D’ block, All India Coordinated Research Project, Main Agricultural Research Station, University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad, Karnataka (India) during June 2016.

Methodology: As per the treatments, organic manure (FYM) and green leaf manures (gliricidia and pongamia) were applied 15 days before sowing of the crop. Vermicompost was applied on the spot to soil before dibbling of seeds in cotton and soybean intercropping system in 1:2 row proportions, soybean introduced as intercrop in cotton with row spacing of cotton 120 cm and soybean 30 cm.

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Performance Optimization of Sustained Release Arginine Alginate Microbeads with a Natural Polysaccharide

Abstracts

Objectives: The design of effective and safe novel drug delivery systems has become an integral part for the development and formulating of new medicines. So, research continuously keeps on searching for new ways to deliver drugs over a long period of time or for a well-controlled release profile, to minimizing the loss of drug, to reduce the side effect. The objective of this study was to develop suitable microbeads of L-arginine for sustained release delivery by varying the alginate concentrations, starch concentrations using analytical and statistical approaches.
Materials and Methods: The work investigates the development and optimization of novel microbeads of potato starch-alginate blend containing L-arginine by ionotropic gelation using response surface methodology. Response surface methodology was found to be satisfactory for describing the relationships between formulation set variables and response variables. The influence of various formulation factors such as In vitro drug release, entrapment efficiency, SEM, analysis, swelling study and micromeritic properties, was investigated. These were also characterized by SEM, analysis.
Results: L-arginie containing microbeads were in the size range of 0.175 ± 0.02 to 0.226 ± 0.02 mm. The drug entrapment efficiencies were found in the range of 42.5 ± 1.83% to 91.2 ± 1.05% and the drug release were found at 10 h in the range 84.568 ± 2.75% to 99.761 ± 1.99%. The release pattern observed was a biphasic, characterized by an initial burst effect followed by slow release. No significant change was found during stability studies of optimized formulation at different temperature and humidity conditions as per ICH guidelines.
Conclusion: The data suggest that sweet potato flour is a potentially useful natural material for making sustained release L-arginine loaded microbeads by the ionotropic gelation technique.

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sciencedomaininternational

A Parallel Apriori-Transaction Reduction Algorithm Using Hadoop-Mapreduce in Cloud

Abstracts

Apriori algorithm is a classical algorithm of association rule mining and widely used for generating frequent item sets. However, the original Apriori algorithm has some limitation such as it needs to scan the dataset many times to discover all frequent itemset and generate huge number of candidate itemset. To overcome these limitations, researchers have made a lot of improvements to the Apriori such as candidate generation, without candidate generation, transaction reduction, partitioning, and sampling. When it comes to mine massive data, these algorithms failed to prove efficiency because limitation of the processing capacity, storage capacity, and main memory constraints. Therefore, parallel and distributed algorithms are developed to perform large-scale computing in ARM on multiple processors. However, the problems with most of the parallel and distributed framework are overheads of managing distributed system, lack of high level parallel programming language, and node failures. Hadoop-MapReduce is an efficient, scalable, and simplified programming model for massive data processing and it also available on cloud environment. Cloud computing offers huge computing resources, and capacities to solve big data challenges. Recently many parallel algorithms have been proposed on Hadoop-MapReduce to enhance the performance of Apriori algorithm but there are some drawbacks: since multiple scan over the dataset is needed to generate candidate itemset, it consume more execution time. The aim of this study is to propose a parallel Transaction Reduction MapReduce Apriori algorithm (TRMR-Apriori) which is reduce unnecessary transaction values and transactions from the dataset in parallel manner to overcome above problems. The experiments show that TRMR-Apriori is able to achieve better execution time to discover frequent itemset those of previous sequential ARM algorithms such as Apriori, AprioriTid, Eclat, and FP-Growth and the previous parallel algorithms such as PApriori, MRApriori, and Modified Apriori with different condition on homogeneous computing environment using Hadoop-MapReduce platform in cloud. Overall, the TRMR-Apriori shows the strength to extract the frequent itemset from massive dataset in cloud.

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sciencedomaininternational

Effect of Various Operating Parameters on Trivalent Chromium Electroplating

Abstracts 

The investigation was aimed to electrodeposit chromium on mild steel surface from non-toxic trivalent chromium bath instead of toxic hexavalent chromium employed for this purpose. We observed the effect of pH, temperature, current density (C.E.) and also time on to the current efficiency. On the other hand we also observed the effect of the concentration of CrCl3 on the plating thickness and optical reflectivity. The optimum pH value and bath temperature are 3 and 40°C respectively to obtain highest current efficiency. On the other hand, 90 min deposition time was the best for high current efficiency. We also achieved good current efficiency at 20 A/dcm2 current density. But the plating thickness was increased with increasing the CrCl3 concentration in the electrolyte. In case of optical reflectivity, the result is totally opposite. Our findings will contribute to develop the products of plating industries.

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July 13 2018

sciencedomaininternational

Drainage Basin Morphometric Analysis for Flood Potential Mapping in Owu Using Geospatial Techniques

Abstracts

This study characterized the Owu drainage basin in southwestern Nigeria using geospatial approach with the objectives of examining the morphometry in relations to flood vulnerability of people in the region. Data used were the topographic maps and satellite imageries of the region. The data were analysed by both hydrological and geographical information techniques for basin delineation, stream ordering and digital elevation modelling. Results showed that the drainage basin is characterized by about 429 stream segments, and mean bifurcation ratio of about 1.9, and that about 23% of the entire basin area is susceptible to severe flooding. The study concluded that livelihoods and people in the flood vulnerable areas are endangered, and recommends preparedness for potential flood hazards in the area.

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sciencedomaininternational

External Debt and Economic Growth of Nigeria: An Empirical Investigation

Abstracts

The study investigates the impact of external debt on economic growth in Nigeria for the period 1999-2015. The data for this study was obtained mainly from secondary sources mainly from Central Bank of Nigeria (CBN) Statistical Bulletins and Debt Management Office. Time series data on Gross Domestic Product (GDP) as a proxy for Economic Growth, External Debt Stock (EXDS), External Debt Service Payment (EDSP), and Exchange Rate (EXGR) were used for the analysis. The techniques of Estimation employed in the study include Augmented Dickey Fuller (ADF) test, Johansen Co-integration, Vector Error Correction Mechanism and Granger Causality Test. Results show that external debt has an inverse effect on economic growth in Nigeria. Subsequently, the study recommends that government should empower Debt Management Office to set the mechanism in place, ensure that loans are utilised for purposes they are meant for and prosecute corrupt public officers who siphoned the money.

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sciencedomaininternational

Optimization of Lipase Production by Bacillus megaterium

Abstracts

 

Aim:  To optimize lipase production by Bacillus megaterium in submerged fermentation

Study Design: Collection of palm oil press fibres and effluent from different palm oil mills located within Ibadan Municipality. Isolation of Bacillus megaterium by cultivation in medium, submerged fermentation of palm oil press fibres and effluent by B. megaterium to produce lipase. Alteration of the cultural conditions to optimize production

Place and Duration of Study: All work were done in the Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Science, University of Ibadan, from January–December 2014

Methodology: Palm oil press fibres and effluent were collected from various palm oil mills and were used as the source of isolation of microorganism. The isolated species were identified by studying the morphological, biochemical, characteristics and 16SrNA gene sequencing. The selected species was screened for lipase production

Results: The results obtained revealed that maximum lipase production was recorded at pH 7.0 with an activity 2.13±0.15 U/ml while the best temperature that supported the optimum production of lipase was seen at 35°C with an activity of 3.30±0.10 U/ml and the best carbon and nitrogen sources were 2% glucose and 2.5% peptone concentrations showing activities of 1.83±0.05 U/ml and 2.60±0.10 U/ml respectively. An incubation period of 72 hours produced the optimum lipase with an activity of 3.26±0.05 U/ml. The separate additions of 0.3M Ca2+ and 0.3M Clsupported maximum production of lipase.

Conclusion: This study showed that lipase production by B. megaterium can be optimized and the best conditions for optimization included pH 7.0, temperature of 35°C, 72 hours incubation period in the presence of 2% glucose, 2.5% peptone concentrations and 0.3M Ca2+ and 0.3M Cl-.

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July 07 2018

sciencedomaininternational

Haematological and Serum Biochemical Indices of Broiler Chickens fed Varying Dietary Levels of Sundried Cassava (Manihot esculenta) Peel Meal Supplemented with Enzyme (MAXIGRAIN®)

Abstracts

 

An eight week feeding trial was conducted at the Poultry Unit of the Teaching and Research Farm, Ambrose Alli University Ekpoma to evaluate the haematological and serum biochemical indices of broiler chickens fed varying levels of sundried cassava peel meal supplemented with enzyme (MAXIGRAIN). A total of one hundred and twenty day-old Anak 2000 broiler chicks was used for this experiment. Forty chicks were randomly selected based on their average initial weights to each of the four treatment diets. (T1 to T4) with T1 serving as a control and T2 to T4 having an inclusion level of Sundried cassava peel meal (SDCPM) at 20, 40, and 60% replacement levels for maize with Maxigrain® enzyme supplementation at the rate of 100mg/kg in a complete randomized design (CRD). The chicks were brooded and fed for four weeks with commercial starter diet. Thereafter they were fed formulated finisher diets for 4 weeks. The result on the haematological parameters revealed that haemoglobin was significantly (P<0.05) higher from birds fed 40% sundried cassava peel meal plus maxigrain supplement (SDCPM + Maxg) with the mean value of 41.68g/dl. Red blood cell was also significantly (P<0.05) highest (7.35x106/ml) from birds fed 40% (SDCPM + Maxg). MCV and Platelet values were also significantly (P<0.05) influenced by the treatment diets with highest values of 59.58fl and 3.21x103/mm3 respectively. Neutrophil and monocyte values were significantly (P<0.05) higher from birds fed 40% (SDCPM + Maxg) with an average values of (29.02% and 4.33%). Serum biochemical indices of broiler chickens fed the treatment diets showed that glucose and cholesterol were significantly (P<0.05) influenced by the various dietary treatments with highest values of 113.68mmol/L and 116.20mmol/L recorded from birds placed on the control diet the values were within the normal range. The overall result in this study showed that sundried cassava peel meal supplemented with maxigrain can successfully be included in broiler ration up to 40% level without any adverse effect on the blood quality of broiler chickens.

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Stability to Heat, Hydrogen Peroxide at Different pH Values and Antioxidant Activity of Terminalia nigrovenulosa Extract

Abstracts

 

The aim of this study is to investigate the stability of Terminalia nigrovenulosa (T. nigrovenulosa) extract to heating, hydrogen peroxide at pH 4 and pH 7. The changes of total polyphenol content, DPPH radical scavenging and reducing power were examined. The results indicated that the investigated extract is relatively stable to heating and sterilization conditions at pH 4 but unstable at pH 7. In addition, hydrogen peroxide also adverse effects to total polyphenol content, DPPH radical scavenging activity and reducing power are total different at pH 4 and pH 7. It was more stable at pH 4 than that at pH 7. Moreover, extract solution contained higher total polyphenol contents possessed stronger DPPH radical scavenging activity and reducing power. Thus, polyphenol compounds were responsible for the antioxidant activity of extracts. It indicated that the extract has potent use as an antioxidant additives in the food system, particularly at acid pH.

 

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Assessment of Soil Fertility of Morogoro District, and Response of Maize (Zea mays) to Applied Nitrogen, Phosphorus and Sulphur

Abstracts

 

Information on soil fertility is very important on application of fertilizers as plant nutrients supplement to correct Nitrogen, phosphorus and Sulphur deficiencies. The study objective was to evaluate the current fertility status of soils of Morogoro District and the response of maize to applied Nitrogen, Phosphorus and sulphur. Two field experiments were carried out in a season 2015/2016. Eighteen maize growing areas were selected, top soils, composite samples from a depth of 0-20 cm was collected and analyzed for physical and chemical properties as per standard procedures in the laboratory. Soil analysis laboratory results used as a means for soil fertility rating. Two of those sites classified as Ultisols (Kiziwa), and Inceptisols (Fulwe) with phosphorus (P), nitrogen (N) and sulphur (S) variability were used for field experiments. Treatments for field experiment were varied fertilizer levels, namely 0, 50, 100 kg N ha-1, 0, 10, 20 kg Pha-1 and 0, 10, 20 kg S ha-1. Absolute control treatment was included in both experimental site and the experiments was arranged in a completely randomized block design with three replicates at both sites. Results showed that studied soils had low soil fertility with slightly acidic to neutral pH in water (6.6-7.5), Low organic carbon (0.7-1.3%), low to very low total N (<0.01) and low extractable S (<3 mg/kg). 28% of studied soils had very high concentaration of P, low to very low CEC, very high exchangeable Ca2+, Mg2+ very low Na+ and adequate Concentration of K with micronutrients not limiting. Grain yield was significantly increased with application of N, P and S at (P=.05). Therefore a tentative nutrient combination of 50-100 kg N ha-1, 10-20 kg P ha-1, and 10-20 kg S ha-1 may be the best strategy for improving maize yields in Morogoro District while monitoring P Concentration with time.

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