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December 06 2019

sciencedomaininternational

Fruit and Seed Biometrics and Influence on Germination of Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam. (Jackfruit)

This work aimed to characterize the biometry of fruits and seeds of Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam. and to verify its influence on germination. The fruits were collected from the matrices trees in the Jardim Botânico do Recife (JBR), Pernambuco. From 10 pathogen-free A. heterophyllus matrices, 50 fruits (multiple fruits, which in the research were considered as single fruit) and 500 seeds were collected, being measured length, width and thickness, using a tape measure (for fruits ) and digital caliper (precision 0.001 mm) for the seeds, as well as weighing on a precision scale. The seeds were classified by size: Small (≤ 2.5 cm), medium (2.6 to 3 cm) and large (≥ 3.1 cm). The germination test was conducted in a greenhouse of the JBR, with a 50% shading screen. The container used was a 50 x 25 x 5 cm polypropylene tray with holes at the bottom to provide drainage. The obtained results allow inferring that the seed size did not influence the vigor on A. heterophyllus germination in a greenhouse. The variation found in fruit size and number of seeds per fruit, as well as field observations regarding fruit and seed morphology, pulp flavor and consistency, allows us to infer that there is a possibility of several varieties of the species occurring in the studied site.

Please read full article : - www.journaljeai.com
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Functional Properties of Defatted Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) Seeds Protein and Its Hydrolysates

Aim: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the functional properties of Roselle seed protein isolates and its hydrolysates.

Place and Duration of Study: The Roselle seeds were collected in Koutiala (Mali), in November 2018. All analysis were conducted in the Faculty of Sciences and Technics, particularly in the Laboratory of Plant and Food Biochemistry and Biotechnology from January to June 2019. 

Methodology: The effect of enzymatic hydrolysis on the functional properties of Roselle seed protein (RSP) was investigated. Defatted Roselle seed flour was used to extract the protein isolates. The protein was digested for 2 hours and 3 hours using pepsin followed by pancreatin.

Results: The 2 hours and 3 hours Roselle seed protein hydrolysates (RSPH2, RSPH3) compare to RSPI, exhibited a good foaming capacity of 300, 315 and 165% respectively. The water holding capacity (WHC) of the RSPI, RSPH2 and the RSPH3 were 2, 2.5 and 2.2 ml/g respectively. The oil holding capacity ranged from 5.75 to 5.32 ml/g, the emulsifying capacity of the RSPH2 was higher than that of the RSPH3 and the RSPI, 105, 97 and 82 ml/g respectively.

Conclusion: The ability of pepsin and pancreatin hydrolysates to be functional is primarily due to their soluble peptide content. The samples have good functional properties. These results proposed that pepsin and pancreatin hydrolysates could be useful as whole or partial replacement of high-price materials such as egg albumen and casein.

Please read full article : - www.journaljeai.com

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Evaluation of Clinical Symptoms and Serum Lead Level in Patients with History of Oral Opium Use being Admitted to Hazrat Rasoul Akram, Firoozgar, Firoozabadi and Haft Tir Hospitals, Tehran

Introduction: Drug abuse and its complications is a socio-health problem in Middle Eastern countries such as Iran. Smugglers may add lead to drug during drug production, which is in order to increase its weight for greater benefit. Considering the frequency of the patients with various complaints among Iranians, this study was designed and conducted to evaluate the clinical symptoms and serum levels of lead in patients being admitted to Hazrat Rasoul Akram, Firoozgar, Firouzabadi and Haft Tir hospitals with any complaints.

Materials and Methods: In this case-control study, serum levels of lead were measured in 128 samples in case and control groups. The case group consisted of 64 patients using oral opium who being admitted to Rasoul Akram and Firoozgar, Haft Tir and Firouzabadi hospitals with different complaints in May 2017. The control group consisted of 64 patients with no history of addiction that were homogenized with the case group in terms of age and sex. They were evaluated for serum levels of lead and other variables. Data were analyzed by SPSS software.

Results: The mean serum lead level was 76.34±17.82 in the group using opium and was 7.68±3.72 in the control group that the difference was statistically significant (P <0.001). The most common complaints of patients were abdominal pain and symptoms of bowel obstruction. The mean rate of oral opium consumption was 1.73±0.23 in subjects under 50 years old and with a mean of 2.89±0.27 in subjects over 50 years old. Serum lead level was significantly (P = 0.032) increased compared to the amount consumed. Duration of oral opium consumption was 5 months to 30 years with a mean of 15.24 years, which was not significantly correlated to serum lead level (P = 0.213). Also, the hemoglobin range was significantly correlated to different levels of lead in patients consuming oral opium (P = 0.027).

Conclusion: The findings of the present study showed a high mean serum lead level in oral opium addicts in the study population. The results also confirm numerous reports suggesting the definitive diagnosis of lead poisoning as a justifying factor in addicted patients with nonspecific symptoms, which may indicate the need for serum lead level screening in opiate addicts to prevent more serious complications.

Please read full article : - www.journaljpri.com

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Prevalence of Childhood Obesity among Primary School Students at Taif Governorate, Saudi Arabia

Background: Obesity in children is rapidly emerging as a global epidemic that will have profound public health consequences as overweight children become overweight adults particularly if obesity is present in adolescence.

Objectives: To determine the prevalence of overweight and obesity among school children between 6-12 years (males and females) at Taif primary schools and determine the associated dietary risk factors for overweight and obesity.

Methods: A cross sectional analytic study was implemented included a representative sample of primary school students (boys and girls) enrolled in governmental schools in Taif, Saudi Arabia, 2014-2015. Data were collected by using valid self-administered questionnaire, with family help. It including socio-demographic characteristics and detailed dietary history. Body mass index-for-age percentiles of CDC were utilized in this study to diagnose obesity.

Results: Among schoolboys, the prevalence of overweight was 10.7%, while prevalence of obesity was 7.6%; the problem seemed to be worse in girls, where the prevalence of overweight and obesity were 16.8% and 18.2%, respectively. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that girls were al almost double risk for developing overweight/obesity compared to boys ((aOR=1.93; 95%CI: 1.03-3.60, p<0.05). Habit of eating cheeps potatoes at school at abnormal rate was associated with almost three-folded risk for obesity or overweight compared to eating cheeps potatoes within normal (aOR=3.14; 95%CI: 1.17-8.41). School children who had the habit of taking fast foods at least three times/week were more likely to develop obesity or overweight compared to those who did not take fast foods (aOR=1.98; 95%CI:1.08-6.30).

Conclusions: Overweight and obesity among primary school children in Taif city, Saudi Arabia is a public health problem affecting more than one-third of girls and almost one fifth of boys. It confirms the significant association between some unhealthy dietary habits and increase prevalence of childhood obesity.

Please read full article : - www.journaljammr.com

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Farmers’ Knowledge in Quality Seed Production Needed for Rice-A Test Development

Aims: Aim of the study is to develop a Farmers’ Knowledge test for the rice seed production farmers in order to assess their knowledge in rice seed production.

Study Design:   Expost facto research design was adopted.

Methodology: Sample: Pretesting was done on 100 rice production farmers in central zone of Telangana state using multistage random sampling procedure with identifying the dimension, collection of items followed by item analysis and checking the reliability and validity for precision and consistency of the results. Test was conducted on October 2019.

Results: The process of developing and standardizing of knowledge test was started. A Total of 57 statements were framed.

Conclusion: 32 statements were finally retained which has practical applicability in ascertaining the knowledge of farmers towards rice seed production.

Implications: This standardized test tests the knowledge of rice farmers on rice seed production. This test thereby it facilitates to take the right decisions by farmers, Government officials under rice seed production and policy makers. It can be used extensively by future validating the test.

Please read full article : - www.journalajaees.com

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Improved Vegetable Cultivation Practices: An Adoption Study among the Farmers’ of Some Selected Areas in Bangladesh

The research work has been done to determine the extent of adoption of improved vegetable cultivation practices by the farmers. Attempt was also made to explore the contribution of selected characteristics of farmers viz. age, education, family size, farm size, experience in vegetable cultivation, annual income, vegetable cultivation knowledge, extension media contact, organizational participation, innovativeness, training experiences and problems confrontation on their adoption of improved practices in vegetable cultivation.

It is a Field Survey Research Shajahanpur upazila under Bogra district of Bangladesh by the department of Agricultural Extension and Information System between January to June of 2018.

Data were collected from randomly selected 112 farmers of Chopinagar union under Shajahanpur upazila of Bogra district by using a structured interview schedule. Appropriate scales were developed in order to measure the variables. Multiple regression test was used to ascertain the contribution of the concerned independent variables on the dependent variable of the research work.

50% of the farmers had low adoption while 40% had medium adoption and 9.80% had high adoption of improved practices in vegetable cultivation. Among the selected characteristics education, experiences in vegetable cultivation, annual income, innovativeness and training experiences showed significant and positive contribution to their adoption of improved practices in vegetable cultivation. However, family size and problems confrontation showed the negative significant contribution to adoption of improved practices in vegetable cultivation of the farmers. Age, farm size, vegetable cultivation knowledge, extension media contact and organizational participation did not show any significant contribution on the adoption of improved practices in vegetable cultivation of the farmers.

Adoption of improved vegetable cultivation practices by the farmers will not be possible to improve in a significant extent unless the concerned authorities (like-Bangladesh Agricultural Research Institute, Department of Agricultural Extension) take proper steps.

Please read full article : - www.journalajaees.com

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Isolation and Identification of Fungal Pathogen Associated with Post Harvest Deterioration of Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) Fruits in Three Selected Markets in Jos, Nigeria

Aim: This study was carried out to isolate, identify and characterize fungal pathogens associated with post-harvest spoilage of cucumber.

Study Design: This research study was done using random sampling technique.

Place and Duration of Study: The experiment was carried out from March to June, 2019 at biology laboratory Federal College of Forestry, Jos.

Methodology: Fungi isolates were obtained from diseased portions of the cucumber fruit samples cultured on PDA media and incubated at 28ºC2 for seven days. The mycelial were identified macroscopically and microscopically. Pathogenicity tests were conducted for all the fungal pathogens identified by inoculating healthy cucumber samples and incubating for ten days with the readings being taken at two day intervals. The data obtained were analyzed using ANOVA and means were separated using LSD at P ≤ 0.05.

Results: Aspergillus fumigatus, Fusarium sp., Geotrichum candidum and Yeast sp were isolated and identified. Result showed that Gada biu market was the most heavily infested location with all the fungal isolates. Geotrichum candidum constituted the highest (50%) occurrence of fungal isolates from all locations. All the fungal isolates were found to be pathogenic on cucumber fruits, with Fusarium being the most destructive, followed by yeast and Geotrichum candidum and the least was Aspergilus fumigatus.

Conclusion: The results obtained in this study showed the isolates identified were involved in Cucumber spoilage. Therefore, Careful handling of Cucumber fruits should be ensured to prevent the spread of these pathogenic fungi.

Please read full article : - www.journalijpss.com

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Study on Marijuana Abuse among Male Nepalese College Students in Bangalore

Over the past few years, the topic of marijuana is featured in the media. Students have an ambiguous information on the medical benefits and the torment of marijuana use. Students under minimum supervision from their guardians are among high risk groups of its abuse. The abuse of marijuana among students is associated with the cognitive impairment, adverse academic performance and the low-level satisfaction of life.

Aims: To find out the prevalence of marijuana abuse among college students staying away from their parents.

Place and Duration of Study:   Sample: 10 colleges from 5 wards of BBMP between February 2014 to February 2015.

Methods: This was a descriptive cross-sectional survey (n=250). Qualitative (interview) and quantitative (structured questionnaire) were used to collect the data about the current use of marijuana, smoking habit, perceived effect and source of supply among Nepalese students studying in Bangalore. The Current user is defined according to the CDC guideline (An adult who has smoked 100 times in his lifetime and who currently smokes marijuana.

Findings: The current prevalence of marijuana abuse among male Nepalese students in Bangalore is 36%. At least one-time usage of marijuana is 51%. Among current users, 38% are using marijuana daily. Similarly, 37% of the participants reported that local friends are the source of supply for them and 32% reported that they get marijuana from college friends. Among current users, about 58% of the users said that they don’t want to quit using marijuana.

Conclusion: It is evident from the study that marijuana use is widespread amongst Nepalese students in Bangalore. The parents whose children are away from home town should maintain a very close relationship with them, their academic supervisors, and their friends. A significant number of current users (41%) wish to quit the addiction of marijuana use, this demand an immediate need for the mental health counselor in the colleges in Bangalore.

Please read full article : - www.journaljsrr.com

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Willingness to Pay for Social Health Insurance by the Self-employed in Port Harcourt, Rivers State; A Contingent Valuation Approach

Background/Aim: Urban Self-Employed Social Health Insurance (USSHIP), which is similar to Community-based health insurance schemes CBHI, USSHIP, is a package in the National Health Insurance Scheme NHIS specific but is not limited to self-employed individuals in Nigeria which has been rarely explored as instrument in financing healthcare in Nigeria. This study was aimed to assess the Willingness-to-Pay (WTP) for USSHIP and its determinants amongst the self-employed in Port Harcourt.

Methodology: This was a cross-sectional descriptive study of 204 self-employed individuals selected from various trade association in Port Harcourt using semi-structured interviewer-administered pre-tested questionnaires. An iterative bidding approach of the contingent valuation method was used to elicit maximum WTP for the schemes. A multivariate logistic regression analysis was done to determine predictors to WTP. Data collected were analysed using the Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS), version 23 software.

Results: The results show that 89.7% were willing to enrol into the program; the median WTP for the scheme per person/per month is ₦300 ($0.83). The predictors of WTP were marital status, level of education and mode of payment of healthcare.

Conclusion: Sequel to the findings of this study, the WTP amount for social health insurance program by the self-employed is too small, the implications for these findings imply that with the amount stated, the program cannot be successfully implemented. Recognizing this low amount stated for WTP for USSHIP, which is insufficient to scale up the scheme, the government support for the program is highly recommended.

Please read full article : - www.journalajarr.com
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Variation in Leaf Constituents and Biochemical Indices of Rats given Psidium guajava from Two Different Areas

Variation in leaf (heavy metal) constituents and biochemical indices of rats given leaf samples of Psidium guajava from two different areas were evaluated. Results obtained for heavy metal constituents the leaf samples showed the presence of mercury (0.14±0.01 mg/100 g), lead (2.90±0.10 mg/100 g), cadmium (0.05±0.01 mg/100 g), copper (5.01±0.17 mg/100 g), chromium (0.40±0.01 mg/100 g), and cobalt (5.64±0.64 mg/100 g) in P. guajava leaf sample from crude oil polluted area. Only copper (0.80±0.20 mg/100 g) was observed in P. guajava leaf sample from non-crude oil polluted area. The biochemical studies on the leaf samples were carried out using standard methods. Thirty-six rats were distributed in six subgroups with six rats each, under three main groups (I-III). Three of the subgroups were placed on P. guajava leaves from crude oil polluted area (designated Ia, IIa and IIIa) while the other three subgroups were placed on P. guajava leaves from non-crude oil polluted area (designated Ib, IIb and IIIb). The haematological parameters of rats placed on P. guajava from crude oil polluted area such as RBC, Hb, PCV, MCV, and MCH were significantly affected (p<0.05) when compared to those of rats  placed on P. guajava from non-crude oil polluted area. AST and ALT liver enzymes significantly increased in rats placed on P. guajava leaves from crude oil polluted area against rats placed on P. guajava leaves from non-crude oil pollute area. Since data obtained with animals become more severe when translated to humans, it therefore becomes pertinent for those that use medicinal plants from crude oil polluted areas to become aware of the possible effects of using such plants. This study has evaluated the variation in leaf constituents and biochemical indices of rats given leaf samples of Psidium guajava from two different areas were evaluated.

Please read full article : - www.journalajarr.com
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A Spatial and Temporal Analysis of Atmospherics Parameters Retrieved by a Neuro-varationnal Method off the West African Coast

In this work, we study spatial and temporal atmospherics parameters evolution retrieved by neuro-variationnal method from SeaWiFS observations measured off the west African coast.

The SeaWiFS sensor measures the radiance above the top of atmosphere (TOA) solar irradiance.

SeaWiFS use standard algorithm to invert the signal in order to retrieve weakly absorbing aerosol optical thickness (AOT) less than 0.3 whereas the Senegalese coasts are frequently crossed by desert dust plumes from large optical thickness.

A neural algorithm, so-called SOM-NV, was developed to deal with absorbing aerosols and to retrieve their optical parameters, off the Senegalese coast, from SeaWiFS observations.

The impact of meteorological variables on these restitutions was studied over the entire period of the observations that we analyzed and over the whole studied area, on the one hand, but also in a more thorough way on three "sub-area" located in north, south and center. The results obtained showed that the composition of aerosols in the atmosphere is a function of the seasons. High altitude zonal U winds are correlated with non-desert aerosols of -62.16% in winter and autumn. The correlation is -60.32% between dust aerosols and the zonal wind.

Please read full article : - www.journaljgeesi.com

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Functional Iron Indices and Highly Sensitive CRP Post Single Dose Irradiation with Cobalt60 and the Ameliorating Effects of Single and Combined Doses of Aqueous Extracts of Parquetina nigrescens, Camellia sinensis and Telfairia occidentalis in Guinea Pigs

Background: The relationship between iron, hypoxia, inflammation, and erythropoietin in cellular homeostasis is well documented. Patients on radiotherapy are known with active immune/inflammatory disorders often accompanied with reduced iron uptake or unavailability of circulatory iron and hence, must be adequately evaluated. The present study hypothesized “aqueous extracts of Camellia sinensis, Telfairia occidentalis and Parquetina nigrescens have chemical properties of ameliorating and restoring to normal, functional iron deficiency sequel to Cobalt 60 irradiation effect”.

Materials and Methods: Fifty-Five young male guinea-pigs approximately 450 gram in weight were recruited and thirty were randomly assigned to 3 groups (A, B and C) for the study. Groups A and B were further divided into 4 (A1-4 and B1-4) with 3 animals (n=3) per group. Three guinea-pigs were also assigned to group C. Groups A and B belonged to Pre and post-irradiation groups while groups C served as control. Each animal was given 400r (4.0 Gy) whole-body gamma-irradiation under general anaesthesia, using a Co60 therapy unit as a source. Groups A1, A2, A3 and A4 had 1,400 mg/kg C. sinensis, 4000 mg/kg P. nigrescens, 3,500 mg/kg T. occidentalis and Combined dose (1,400 mg/kg C. sinensis + 400 mg/kg P. nigrescens + 3,500 mg/kg T. occidentalis) respectively twice daily 72 hours prior to irradiation and continued throughout the 14 days of the study. Groups B1, B2, B3 and B4 had similar treatment but commenced 24 hours after exposure to radiation and likewise continued throughout the 14 days of the study. Group C were not given any treatment but also had irradiation.

Results: Total Iron Binding Capacity, Ferritin, Serum Transferrin receptor and Iron were all increased significantly for all the extracts pre and post irradiation. However, C-reactive protein decreased significantly.

Conclusion: Aqueous extracts of Camellia sinensis, Parquetina nigrescens and Telfairia occidentalis leaves have good ameliorating effect on irradiation-induced injuries.

Please read full article : - www.journalejmp.com
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Eliminating the Pre-exponential Factor in Classical Nucleation Theory

Blander and Katz give a formula in classical nucleation theory, J = A exp K, for homogeneous nucleation (liquid-->gas). Jennings proved that dlnA/dK = 1/6K for all pure liquids by combining two theories, taking the limit as polymer concentration-->0. This gives lnA = (1/12)ln(K2) + C, where C is the integration constant. The conjecture is that C is a constant for fluids of low molecular weight.  We used data for 7 sample solvents, and solved for C. The surface tension drops out in C, which makes C more accurate, as the surface tension is difficult to get at 0.89Tc, the limit of superheat. Tc= critical point in Kelvin. All quantities are evaluated at the limit of superheat, which is approximately 0.89Tc for solvents. C = 74.77 ± 0.33 for the 7 solvents (not all alkanes). This eliminates the prefactor A, streamlining J: ln J = (1/12)ln(K2) + 74.77 + K is the exact new equation.  A computer can more easily be used to calculate J, the nucleation rate.

Please read full article : - www.journalcsij.com
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Suppository Effect of Aqueous Root Extract of Moringa oleifera on Alcohol Induce Liver Toxicity in Wistar Rats

Introduction:   Moringa oleifera root is the most underutilized part of the plant and it is rich in many phytochemicals.

Aim of the Study: This study was carried out to evaluate the effect of Standardized and characterized aqueous root extract of Moringa oleifera following the administration of alcohol-induced liver damage in albino wistar rats.

Materials and Methods: Thirty (30) experimental rats weighing 100-120 g were randomly divided into 6 groups of 5 rats each. Group 1, the normal control group was given just rat feed and water, group 2, negative control was administered alcohol only (1.5 ml/kg body weight), rats in group 3, 4 and 5 received combined administration of alcohol 1.5 ml/kg body weight and 200, 400 and 600 mg/kg body weight of characterized aqueous root extract of Moringa oleifera respectively, group 6 rats were administered 250mg/body weight of extract only. At the end of fourteen days (14) the experimental rats were then sacrificed and the serum liver enzymes were then assayed.

Results: The results obtained from the laboratory was analyzed using one-way ANOVA and post-hoc test was done afterwards. Rats fed alcohol only produced significant increase in the levels of enzyme markers of tissue damage (AST, ALT and ALP) compared to normal control rats. Rats in group 3, 4 and 5 that were post treated with 200, 400 and 600 mg/kg body weight of extract and they had significant decrease (P<0.05) in the levels of these enzyme markers in a dose-dependent manner compared to the negative control. The extract control group had no significant increase (P<0.05) in the levels of the enzyme markers when compared to the normal control; however, there was a significant increase in the serum activity of ALP of the extract control group when compared with the normal control.

Conclusion: The present study exhibited a potent hepatoprotective effect against liver injury caused by alcohol administration. This suppository effect could be related to the antioxidant’s properties of Moringa oleifera that is rich in flavonoids and phenolic constituents of the extracts may contribute to their enzyme action.

Please read full article : - www.journalarrb.com

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Hybrid Pattern Recognition and Multi-resolution Analysis (MRA) Based Fault Location in Power Transmission Lines

This paper proposes a fault (line-to-line) location on Ikeja West – Benin 330kV electric power transmission lines using wavelet multi-resolution analysis and neural networks pattern recognition abilities. Three-phase line-to-line current and voltage waveforms measured during the occurrence of a fault in the power transmission-line were pre-processed first and then decomposed using wavelet multi-resolution analysis to obtain the high-frequency details and low-frequency approximations. The patterns formed based on high-frequency signal components were arranged as inputs of the neural network, whose task is to indicate the occurrence of a fault on the lines. The patterns formed using low-frequency approximations were arranged as inputs of the second neural network, whose task is to indicate the exact fault type. The new method uses both low and high-frequency information of the fault signal to achieve an exact location of the fault. The neural network was trained to recognize patterns, classify data and forecast future events. Feed forward networks have been employed along with back propagation algorithm for each of the three phases in the Fault location process. An analysis of the learning and generalization characteristics of elements in power system was carried using Neural Network toolbox in MATLAB/SIMULINK environment. Simulation results obtained demonstrate that neural network pattern recognition and wavelet multi-resolution analysis approach are efficient in identifying and locating faults on transmission lines as the average percentage error in fault location was just 0.1386%. This showed that satisfactory performance was achieved especially when compared to the conventional methods such as impedance and travelling wave methods.

Please read full article : - www.journaljerr.com

December 05 2019

sciencedomaininternational

Evaluation of Tactile Comfort of Mulberry Silk Waste and Viscose Blended Knitted Fabrics by using Kawabata Evaluation System (KES) for Apparel Use

Tactile sensations are among the first parameters, which play an important role in guiding a consumer’s decision while selection of fabric. In the present investigation, hand properties of knitted fabrics were studied. Attempt was made on four knitted fabrics, blended in proportions of 50% mulberry silk: 50% viscose and 40% mulberry silk: 60% viscose, each in two unequal counts. Objective assessment of the fabrics has been carried out in order to obtain the scores on various aspects of hand. Parameters like low stress mechanical and surface properties were chosen for experimental design. Blended knitted fabrics were subjected to tests for prediction of tensile, shear, bending, surface and compression properties. The results could bring about the useful data for design and production of ideal fabric having desirable handle. It was witnessed that knitted fabric blended in proportion of 50% mulberry silk: 50% viscose in 20 Nm yarn count carried finest hand properties with total hand value of 3.49; hence same was recommended for apparel use, commercial handling and production.

Please read full article : - www.journalcjast.com

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Adaptation and Impact of Zero Tillage Technology for Wheat Cultivation in Eastern Region of Bihar

The present study aims to determine the adaptation and impact of zero tiltage technology for wheat cultivation in Eastern region of Bihar.

There is an increasing recognition among policy-makers of the largely untapped potential of the Eastern Indo-Gangetic Plains (IGP) for meeting state- and national-level food needs in India. Zero-tillage (ZT) technology has been proven for enhancing wheat productivity and, hence, food security in the IGP while reducing production costs – a 'win-win' which support rapid/fast technology scaling even though adoption remains modest to date. ZT technology is well known in the form of CA, that involves continuous minimum mechanical soil disturbance, permanent organic soil cover with crop residues or cover crops and diversified, efficient and economically viable crop rotations provide opportunities for saving on inputs, improving resource use efficiency and mitigating greenhouse gas (GHG) emission and climate change adaptation. Under the Farmers First project, an attempt was made to introduce ZT technology among two adopted villages under Goradih block of Bhagalpur district in Bihar, India. The result has shown that ZT is gaining popularity amongst the farmers in the adopted villages for establishing wheat crop for higher income and sustainability of the farming community. This technology allows rice-wheat farmers for direct drilling of wheat sooner after rice harvest without any preparatory tillage, so that wheat crop heads and fills grain before the onset of pre-monsoon. This involves sowing with a specially-designed zero-till seed-cum-fertilizer drill/planter, which has inverted 'T' type furrow opener to make a narrow slit in the soil for placing seed and fertilizer.  Wheat was sown by zero tillage technology that helped in advancing sowing time, reduced cost of cultivation in terms of land preparation (Rs.3850/ha), saving in labours time (6-7 hrs/ha), fuel (44 ltr/ha), environmental pollution (60%) as well as water-saving (33%).

Please read full article : - www.journalcjast.com

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Knowledge of Pre-hospital Emergency Medical Technician about Endotracheal Intubation: A Manikin Study

Background: Pre-hospital emergency is an important part of the health-care system helping for critically ill patients in the life-threatening conditions by endotracheal intubation, preventing complications and mortality. The present study was conducted to determine the knowledge of pre-hospital emergency staff about the endotracheal intubation.

Methods and Materials: This was an analytical cross-sectional study performed on 70 pre-hospital staff in Rasht. Samples were obtained through census. Data collection tools included a researcher-made questionnaire with three parts: Demographic and job characteristics with 14 questions and knowledge questionnaire, with 15 questions. The reliability coefficient of the knowledge questionnaire was 0.87 and the interclass correlation coefficient was 0.86. Kolmogorov-Smirnov, mean and standard deviation (in the Mann-Whitney and Kruskal-Wallis tests) were used. The collected data were entered into SPSS 24 software and analyzed.

Results: The majority of study participants were in the age groups of 26-30 and 36-40 years. Regarding education, the majority had associate and bachelor's degree. The findings of the pre-hospital emergency department staff's knowledge and status of the endotracheal tube insertion based on individual and occupational variables showed that the knowledge score based on work experience in the health system (p=0.05) and having unsuccessful intubation at six months (p=0.009) was statistically different, so that employees with higher work experience were less aware of endotracheal intubation and employees who have had a history of unsuccessful intubation for the past six months have had a higher level of knowledge.

Conclusion: According to the results of the present study, the knowledge of pre-hospital emergency personnel was in moderate level and needs educational programs to reach the optimum level.

Please read full article : - www.journaljpri.com
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Do Natural Resource Management Policies Ensure Environmental Justice in Benin?

This article aims to analyze natural resource management policies in Benin. Natural resources in Benin play an important role for the livelihood of the population. The management policies of these natural resources involve several actors at different levels. This sector has also undergone several reforms with changes in intervention approaches from colonial times to the present day. Current reforms involving private organizations born of dissatisfaction with previous reforms lead us to question the governance of these resources. By adopting the perspective of the theory of environmental justice, we have analyzed natural resource management policies in Benin. The results of our study show that natural resource management in Benin provides mainly procedural justice, justice that does not guarantee sustainable management. The distributive justice that is fundamental in this management is poorly considered. This study suggests empirical research to determine the links between justice, feelings of justice of the populations and social changes observed especially, the specific cases of the agro-pastoral communities.

Please read full article : - www.journalajaees.com
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Preferences of the Poor Farming Household for Credit-Based Payment for Environmental Services: Attributes for Environmental Resource Conservation in the Oyo State Farm Settlements

Previous studies affirmed that both poverty and environmental resources degradation need to be tackled concomitantly. The reason is that poverty and environmental resources (agricultural land) are intertwining as a nexus; hence a one traffic-proffered solution is not sufficient enough to reduce the afterward menace poverty and environmental resource caused. An incentive that serves as an ‘adjudicator’, a credit-based payment for an environmental service is recognized for this task. Though this is a hypothetical case of Payment for Environmental Services (PES) that understudied the would-be response of the poor farming household through their preferences of PES attributes of environmental resource conservation and poverty reduction. This was designed with the use of choice experiment method, which is a multi-attribute approach of valuing non-market goods (agricultural land). Evidently, this study has convincingly proved that the poor farmers are willing to conserve their agricultural land, if the provision of necessary incentive is presented to them. The examined three farm settlements in Oyo state are: Afijio, Ijaye and Ido farm settlements. Educationally poor farming household shows that, 93(65.49%) preferred both options, whereas consumption poor farming house  have 162(68.5%) respondents that sought for both option 1and 2.Housing/standard of living farming household recorded 98(34.63 %) for option 1 PES attributes and 95(33.57%)responded were for option 2 of PES attributes. The T-t test revealed that four of the paired poverty categories with respect to their preferences for the PES attributes options were significant. This study therefore suggests that poor farming household, whose farming is their livelihood should be sensitized to the provision of a deliberately designed poverty-environmental resource conservation credit-based PES, with a more flexible conditions. This will enable the poor farmers to be encouraged to participate in conservation of natural resource and by extension reducing poverty.

Please read full article : - www.journaljemt.com
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